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Hazards & Waters

Natural Hazards & Earth's Waters Notes

Landslides large areas of ground movement of rock, earth, or debris that fall, slide, or flow on slopes due to gravity.
_______ can occur in any environment given the right conditions of soil, moisture, and the angle of slope landslides
Causes of landslides rains, floods, earthquakes, and other natural causes, as well as human-made causes such as excessive development or clear-cutting for lumber
Effects of landslides blocking roads, damaging or destroying homes, destroying habitats, or disrupting power lines.
Fire is a _______ event in most grassland and forest ecosystems. natural
______ can be beneficial to the ecosystem and are an essential component in the life cycle of some trees Fires
Causes of Wildfires naturally through lightning strikes or when humans start them accidentally or intentionally.
Effects of Wildfires ability of some seeds to break open so they can germinate, an increase in air pollution, habitat destruction, or destroying homes or property
Flood an unusually high water stage in which water overflows its natural or artificial banks onto normally dry land.
Regular River Flood water slowly climbs over the edges of a river
Flash Flood occurs when a wall of water quickly sweeps over an area
Factors that contribute to flooding heavy, intense rainfall; over-saturated soil; high river, stream or reservoir levels caused by unusually large amounts of rain; urbanization, or lots of buildings and parking lots.
Effects of flooding damaging property, endangering humans and animals, or causing soil erosion and deposition of sediment and nutrients and creation of fertile soil.
Groundwater water that soaks into the ground after falling to Earth.
Runoff Water that flows downhill as surface water instead of soaking into the ground
Permeable Soil and rock that allow the water to pass through
Zone of aeration unsaturated layer of soil
Zone of saturation The area where the water has filled all the space in the soil
Water table the top of the zone of saturation
Aquifers Groundwater that flows slowly through the underground rock or be stored in underground layers
_____ is naturally purified as it soaks through the soil layers groundwater
Surface-water runoff that has not soaked into the ground
As _____ travels downhill, it forms the water in streams and rivers runoff
Drainage basin An area that is drained by a river and all the streams that empty into it
Watershed another name for a drainage basin
tributaries another name for streams that empty into rivers
Divide the high ground between two drainage basins
By studying a map that contains rivers and marking all the tributaries of that river, the ______ area can be identified watershed
_____ water can erode the land in one location and deposit the sediments in another. Flowing
The ________ of a river may deposit sediment after heavy rains enriching the area with new soil needed for growing vegetation floodplain
The _____ _______ provides the needed water for animal life also drainage basin
_______ may form where the river ends its journey into a still body of water like a lake or the ocean Deltas
Human beings are dependent upon water for __________, not only for drinking but for agriculture and industry as well. survival
Dams have been placed along some rivers in order to produce ____________ power and to offer recreation in the lakes that form behind the dams hydroelectric
Lakes, rivers, and the ocean contain sources of food and __________ minerals
Earth is __% freshwater 3
Since much of the freshwater is in the form of ice, very little is left as “________” freshwater for humans usable
Created by: Ms. Phillips