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Soc 488

Ch 2

2 types of Solidarity mechanical solidarity organic solidarity
mechanical solidarity Durkheim theory, the idea that primitive society is held together by the fact there is little division of labor and, as a result, virtually everyone does essentially the same things.
organice solidarity the idea that beacuse of the substantial division of labor in modern society, solidarity comes from differences: that is people need the contributions of an increasing # of people in order to function and even to strive
dynamic density the # of people and their frequency of interaction. An increase in dynamic density leads to transformation from mechanical to organic solidarity
collective conscience the ideas shared by the members of a collectivity such as a group, a tribe, or society
repressive law a form of law which offenders are likely to be severly punished for any action that is seen by the tightly integrated community as an offense against the powerful collective conscience -characteristic of mechanical solidarity
restitutive law weakened collective conscience. Offenders are asked to comply with the law or to repay those who have been harmed by their actions
anomie a sense associated with organic solidarity, of not knowing what one is expected to do: of being adrift in society with any clear and secure moorings.
social facts subject matter of sociology. Treated as things that are external to, and coercive over, individuals as they are to be studied empiracally
material social facts social facts that take a material form in the external social world (ex. Architecture)
non material social facts social facts that are external and coercive, but which do not take a material form, they are non material. (ex. norms and values)
anomic suicide people are more likely to kill themselves when they do not know what is expected of them, where regulation is low, and they are largely free to run wild. This mad pursuit is likley to prove unsatisfying and, as a result.
egoistic suicide when people are not well integrated into the collectivity and largely on their own, they feel a sense of futility, meaninglessness and more of them feel that they are morally free to kill themselves.
altruistic suicide when people are TOO well integrated into the collectivity, they are likely to kill themselves in greater numbers because the group leads them, or even forces them to.
fatalistic suicide in situations of excessive regulation (ex slavery) people are often so distressed and depressed by their lack of freesom that they take their own lives, more frequently than otherwise.
alienation the breakdown of, the seperation from, the natural interconnection between people and their productive activities,the products they produce, the fellow workers, and with what they are protentially capable of becoming.
capitalism an economic system composed mainly of capitalists and proletariat, in which one class (capitalists) exploits the other (proletariat)
means of production those things that are needed for production to take place (including tools, machinary, raw materials, and factories)
capitalists those who own the means of production under capitalism and are therefore in a position to exploit workers.
proletariat those who, because they do not own means of production, must sell their labor time to the capitalists in order to get access to those means
subsistence wage the wage paid by the capitalist to the proletariat that is just enough for the worker to survive and to have a family and children so that when the worker falters, he can be replaced by one of his children
labor theory of value Marx theory that ALL value comes from labor and is therefore traceable, in capitalism, to the prolatariat.
surplus value the difference between the value of a product when it is sold and value of the elements consumed in production of the product (including workers labor)
exploitation in capitalism, the capitalists reap benefits and the proletariats get just enough to subsist, even though based on the label of value theory, the situation should be reversed
false consciousness in capitalism, both the proletariat and the capitalists have an inacurate sense of themselves, their relationship to one another, and the way in which capitalism operates.
class consciousness the ability of a class, in particular the proletariat, to overcome false consciousness and attain an accurate understanding of the capitalist system.
praxis the idea that people, especially the proletariat, must take concrete action in order to overcome capitalism.
communism the social system that permits, for the first time, the expression of full, human potential
behavior things that people do that require little or no thought
action things that people do that are the result of conscious processes
behaviorism the study, largely associated with psychology, of behavior.
affectual action nonrational action that is the result of emotion
traditional action action taken on the basis of the ways things have been done habitually or customarily
value-rational action action that occurs when an actors choice of the best means to an end is chosen on the basis of the actors belief in some larger set of values. This may not be an optimal choice, but its rational from the value system p.o.v.
means-ends rational action the pursuit of ends that the actor has chosen for himself:that choice is affected by the actors view of the environment in which she finds herself, including the behavior of people and objects in it
practical rationality on a day to day basis, we deal with whatever difficulties exist and find the most expedient way of attaining our goal of getting from one point to another
theoretical rationality an effort to master reality cognitivley through the development of increasingly abstract concepts. The goal is to attain a rational understanding of the world rather than to take rational action within it
substantive rationally the choice of the most expedient action is guided by larger values rather than by daily experiences and practical thinking.
form rationality the choice of the most expedient action is based on rules, regulations, and laws that apply to everyone. This form of rationality is distinctive to the modern West.
Protestant ethic because of their believe in predestination, the Calvinist could not know whether they were going to hell or directly affect their fate. Success in business=salvation
verstehen a methodological technique involving an effort to understand the thought processes of the actor, their meanings and motives, and how these factors led to the the action (or interaction) under study
spirit of capitalism people motivated to be economically successful . characteritics include the seeking of profits rationally and systematically, frugality, punctuality,fairness, and the earning of money as a legitmate end in itelf.
traditional authority authority based on the belief by followers that certain people have excercised sovereighnty since time immemorable. leaders and follower believe in the sanctity of age old rules and powers
charismatic authority authority legitimated by a belief of the followers in the exceptional sanctity, heroism, or exemplary character of the charimatic leader
charisma the definition by others that a person has extraordinary qualities. A person may not have such qualities in order to be so defined.
routinization of charisma efforts by disciples to recast the leaders extraordinary characterstics so they are better able to handle mundane matters.
ideal type one sided, exaggerated concept , usually an exaggeration of the rationality of a given phenomenon, used to analyze the social world in all its historical and contemporary variation. The ideal type is a measuring rod to compare soc phenom across culture/ti
bureacracy modern type of organization, officer behavior is rule bound:each office has specific duty. Each has the means, authority and specific function to get the job done. Much of bur dutys are in writing.
rational-legal authority a type of authority in which the legitimacy of its leaders is derived from the fact that there is a series of codifies rules and regulations and leaders hold their positions as a result of those rules.
association the relationships among people, or interaction.
forms patterns imposed on the bewildering array of events, actions, and interactions in the social world both by people in their everyday lives and by social theorists.
types patterns imposed on a wide range of actors by both laypeople and social scientists in order to combine a number of them into a limites number of categories.
secrecy as defined by Simmel, the condition in which one person has the intention of hiding something while the other is seeking to reveal that which is hidden.
lie a form of interaction in which a person intentionally hides the truth from others
reify to endow social structures, which are created by people, with a seperate and real existence
dyad a two person group
triad a three person group
stranger on of Simmels social types defined by distance: one who is neither too close nor too far.
objective culture the objects that people produce- art, science, philosophy etc that become part of culture
individual culture the capacity of the individual to produce, absorb, and control elements of objective culture.
tragedt of culture our meager individual capacities cannot keep pace with our cultural products. As a result, we are doomed to increasingly less understanding of the world we have created and to be increasingly controlled by the world.
business a pecuniary approach to economic process in which the dominant interests are acquisition, monmey and profitabiliy rather than production and interests of the larger society
industry the understanding and productive use, primarily by the working classes, of a wide variety of mechanized processes on a large scale.
consipicuous consumption the consumption of a variety of goods, not for subsistence but for higher status for those who consume them and thereby to create the basis for invidious distinctions between people.
conspicuous leisure the consumption of leisure; the non productive use of time. The waste of time to as as way of creating an invidious distinction between people and elevating the social status of those able to use their time in this way.
act basic concept in Meads theory, involving an impulse, perception of stimuli, taking action involving the objects involving the object perceived, and using the object to satisfy the initial impulse.
impulse first stage of the act, in which the actor reacts to soem external stimilus and feels the need to do something about it.
perception second stage of the act, in which the actor consciously searches for and reacts to stimuli that relate to the impulse and the ways of dealing with it.
manipulation third stage of the act involving manipulating the object , once it has been percieved.
consummation fourth/ final stage of the act involving the taking of action that satisfies the original impulse.
gestures movements by one party (person or animal) that serve as stimuli to another party.
conversation of gestures gestures by one party that mindlessly elicit responding gestures from the other party.
significant gestures gestures that require thought before a response is made: only humans are capable of this.
significant symbols symbols that arouse in the person expressing them the same kind of response( it need not be identical as they are designed to elicit from those to whom they are addressed
mind to Mead, the conversations that people have with themselves using language.
self the ability to take oneself as an object
reflexivity the ability to put ourselves in others places, think as they think act as they act
play stage the first stage in the genesis of the self, in which the child plays at being someone else.
game stage the second stage in the genesis of the self; instead of taking the role of discrete others, the child takes the role of everyone involved in a game. Each of these others plays a specific role in the overall game.
generalized other the attitude of the entire community or of any collectivity in which the actor is involved.
definition of the situation the idea that if people define situations as real, then those definitions are real in their consequences (Thomas&Thomas)
I The immediate response of the self to ohers: the incalcuable, unpredicatble, and creative aspect of the self.
me the individuals adoption and perception of the generalized other:the conformist aspect of the self.
Created by: monicedandre