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68WM6 Ph 2 B&L

Blood and Lymphatic/Immune

a system of grouping blood based on the presence or absence of two antigens ABO Blood Groups
small plasma proteins that are the primary components of osmotic pressure in the bloodstream albumin
a condition that results from too few erythrocytes or hemoglobin anemia
soluble, globular proteins that directly attack antigens and stimulate changes that prevent the spread of pathogens antibodies
a chemical compound attached to a cell surface which, if not recognized by the lymphatic system, elicits an immune response antigen
an effective hemostatic mechanism that causes blood clots through the use of clotting factors coagulation
the pressure resulting from water moving toward an area of a higher concentration of a solute colloid osmotic pressure
oxygen depleted blood deoxyhemoglobin
conditions that would result in decreased HCT embolus
a hormone that is secreted by the kidney and liver to control rate of erythrocyte production erythropoietin
insoluble threads of protein that form a meshwork at sites of injury and entrap blood cells and platelets, forming blood clots fibrin
a large protein sythesized in the liver that functions in blood coagulation fibrinogen
three types of proteins synthesized in the liver and lymphatic tissue and are important in the transport of lipids and fat soluble vitamins and immunity globulin
the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells hematocrit
oxygen carrying portion of the erythrocyte hemoglobin
the process responsible for stopping blood loss when a blood vessel is damaged hemostasis
oxygen rich blood oxyhemoglobin
blood rich in carbon dioxide carbaminohemoglobin
five types of cells, also known as white blood cells, that protect against disease leukocytes
proteins that combine with lipids to allow transport of lipids through the bloodstream lipoprotein
cell fragments, also known as platelets, that close breaks in damaged blood vessels and initiate the formation of blood clots thrombocytes
clear, straw colored liquid portion of whole blood which contains a complex mixture of chemicals plasma
a hormone responsible for initiating the formation of thrombocytes thrombopoietin
a blod clot that abnormally forms in a blood vessel thrombus
the combination of all fluid and components in the blood whole blood
the four functions of blood transportation (nutrients, electrolytes, oxygen, wastes, hormones); maintains stability of interstitial fluid; protects against disease; plugs damaged vessels
7 major components of blood erythrocytes; leukocytes; platelets; plasma proteins; blood gases; plasma nutrients; cholesterol (HDL/LDL)
the 3 steps of hemostasis vasospasm; platelet plug; coagulation
universal donor Type O
universal recipient Type AB
blood in which antigen A is present Type A
blood in which antigen B is present Type B
blood in which antigens A and B are both present Type AB
blood in which antigens A and B are both absent Type O
Blood in which antigen D is present Rh positive
Blood in which antigen D is absent Rh negative
major symptoms of anemia weakness, fatigue
two treatment options for iron deficiency anemia oral iron supplements, z-track intramuscular iron dextran
these cells are formed in the red bone marrow and respond to antigens indirectly through the use of antibodies B cells
cell that remains in reserve in the lymph nodes until its ability to secrete antibodies is needed memory cell
substance that, when introduced into the body, causes formation of antibodies against it antigen
disease causing agent pathogen
the class of T cells that directly attack invaders killer cells
the class of T cells that notify the B cells of an attack in progress helper cells
these T cells call off the attack when a antigen is eliminated, and also remain in circulation after attack to be able to respond quickly to any subsequent invasion by a similar antigen memory cells
this class of B cells produces antibodies to fight off an infection in progress plasma cells
this class of B cells remain in circulation after an infection with the ability to convert to plasma cells and produce antibodies in case of subsequent invasion memory cells
hemolytic anemia with a genetic basis in which RBC's become misshapen when stressed sickle cell anemia
sickling of RBC's during a crisis leads to obstruction of microvasculature, which can lead to these two complications organ infarction, necrosis
characterized by excessive bone marrow production that at manifests with an increase in circulating erythrocytes, granulocytes and platelets polycythemia vera
type of polycythemia that is caused by hypoxia rather than a defect in the development of RBC's secondary polycythemia
decrease in the number of circulating platelets that leads to bleeding thrombocytopenia
main topic of nursing education for a patient with thrombocytopenia avoiding injury and hemorrhage
hereditary coagulation disorder caused by a genetic deficiency of factor VIII Hemophilia A
hereditary coagulation disorder caused by a genetic deficiency of factor IX Hemophilia B
treatment of hemophilia blood factor replacement and prevention of injury
characterized initially by clotting and secondarily by hemorrhage; usually occurs in patients who are already critically ill DIC
proteins that control blood clotting become over active Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
normal pH of blood 7.35-7.45
sodium chloride concentration of blood 0.9%
average adult blood volume 5-6L
functions of blood trasportation, acid base balance, protection from infection
normal RBC levels male: 4.7-6.1 female: 4.2-5.4 million/mm3
conditions that would result in an elevation of RBC lab values dehydration, polycythemia, high altitude, hypoxia
conditions that would result in a decrease of RBC lab values anemia, leukemia, hemorrhage
normal HGB values male:14-18 female: 12-16 g/dL
conditions that would result in an increase in HGB polycythemia, dehydration, COPD
conditions that would result in a decrease in HGB anemia, hemorrhage
normal HCT values male: 42-52%, female: 37-47%
normal ESR levels male: 0-15 female: 0-20 mm/hr
conditions that would result in an increased ESR tissue destruction, infection
normal reticulocyte levels 0.5-2%
conditions that would result in increased reticulocytes bone marrow hyperactivity, hemorrhage
conditions that would result in decreased reticulocytes hemolytic diseases
normal platelet count 150,000-400,000
conditions that would result in increased platelet count granulocytic leukemia
conditions that would result in decreased platelet count thrombocytopenia; aplastic anemia
normal PT 11-12.5 seconds; >20 is critical
normal INR 0.7-1.8; >3.5 is critical
normal PTT 60-70 seconds; >100 is critical
normal bleeding time 1-9 minutes
normal clotting time 3-9 minutes
normal WBC 5000-10000
normal neutrophil levels 60-70%; 3000-7000 total
conditions that would result in increased neutrophils burns, crush injuries, diabetic acidosis, infections
conditions that would result in decreased neutrophils chemotherapy, radiation, agranulocytosis, dietary deficiency, autoimmune disorders
normal eosinophil levels 1-4%; 50-400 total
conditions that would result in increased eosinophil levels allergic and parasitic disorders
the general name for cells that ingest and destroy foreign cells or other harmful substances phagocytes
when in the circulatory system, macrophages are known as _________ monocytes
when outside of the circulatory sytem, monocytes are known as __________ macrophages
normal basophil levels 0.5-1%; 25-100 total
conditions that would result in increased basophil levels acute leukemia
normal lymphocyte levels 20-40%; 1000-4000 total
conditions that would result in increased lymphocyte levels mono, measles, viruses, hepatitis, lymphocytic leukemia
conditions that would result in decreased lymphocyte levels AIDS, lupus, hodgkins
normal monocyte levels 2-6%; 100-600 total
conditions that would result in increased monocytes chronic inflammatory diseases, recovery phase of bacterial infections
normal thrombocyte (platelet) levels 150000-400000/mm3
the liquid part of the blood plasma
three plasma proteins albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
three types of formed elements in the blood erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
red pigment in red blood cells that carries oxygen hemoglobin
thrombin converts this plasma protein into fibrin fibrinogen
which vitamin stimulates the liver to increase the synthesis of prothrombin, thus improving the body's ability to clot Vitamin K
a condition called ________ can develop if an Rh negative mother has an Rh positive fetus erythroblastosis fetalis
blood plasma without the clotting factors serum
test for pernicious anemia schilling test
most common site for bone marrow biopsy iliac crest
pernicious anemia a decrease in RBC when the body cant absorb enough vitamin B12
effects of pernicious anmeia fragile cell membranes, demyelinization and degeneration of nerves and white matter
signs and symptoms of pernicious anemia dyspnea, fever, hypoxia, weakness, weight loss, jaundice (lemon yellow), tingling in hands and feet, smooth beefy red tongue
what do RBC's look like in pernicioius anemia large, abnormally shaped
treatment of pernicioius anemia 1000u IM B12 daily for 2 weeks and then monthly for life
causes of aplastic anemia chromosomal abnormalities, viruses, medication, chemicals, radiation, chemotherapy
what are the findings on bone marry biopsy with aplastic anemia hypoplastic or aplastic fatty deposits, "dry tap"
treatment of aplastic anemia bone marrow transplant
Created by: ewoff85