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QuestionAnswer
Movement of a body part away from the midline abduction
movement of a body part toward the midline adduction
a thin layer of cartilage covering each epiphysis articular cartilage
movement of the distal end of a bone in a circle circumduction
the outer layer of bone that is hard and dense compact bone
an oval projection of a bone that fits into an elliptical socket condyle
a sharp edge (of a bone) crest
a hollow tube made of hard, compact bone diaphysis or shaft
a thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity endosteum
cartilage between the epiphyses and the diaphysis epiphyseal plate
the ends of a bone epiphyses
movement that increases the angle between two connected bones (straightening a bent elbow, for example) extension
movement that decreases the angle between two connected bones (bending the elbow, for example) flexion
area where ossification is incomplete fontanel or "soft spot"
the process of blood cell formation hematopoiesis
the hollow area inside the diaphysis of a bone containing hellow bone marrow medullary cavity
a large depression on the posterior surface of the humerus olecranon fossa
bone reabsorbing cells osteoclasts
living bone cells osteocytes
a bone-forming cell osteoblast
strong, fibrous membrane covering a long bone everywhere except at joint surfaces periosteum
soft connective tissue inside the hard walls of some bones red bone marrow
movement that spins one bone relative to another (rotating the head at the neck joint, for example) rotation
spaces or cavities withing some of the cranial bones sinuses
the porous bone in the end of a long bone spongy bone
an immovable joint suture
the purpose of the skeletal system provides a rigid framework and support structure for the whole body
the functions of the skeletal system support, protection, movement, storage, hematopoiesis
the four categories of bone long, short, flat, irregular
the humerus and femur are examples of what type of bone long bone
the carpals and tarsals are examples of what type of bone short bone
the scapula is and example of what type of bone flat bone
the pelvis is an example of what type of bone irregular bone
bones that develop from layers of connective tissues (all flat bones and the clavicles develop in this manner) intramembranous bones
bones that develop as cartilage which is later replace by bone (all bones other than flat bones and the clavicles devolop in this way) endochondral bones
the division os the skeleton containing the head, neck, and trunk axial
the division of the skeleton containing the upper and lower limbs appendicular
joint composed of a thin layer of dense connective tissue, also called immovable or synarthroses fibrous joint
joint connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage, also called slightly movable or amphiarthroses cartilaginous joint
most common type of joint, also called freely movable or diarthroses synovial joint
moving a part so that its end follows a circular path (moving the finger in a circular motion without moving the hand, for example) circumduction
lowering a part (drooping the shoulders, for example) depression
raising a part (shrugging thou shoulders, for example) elevation
turning the foot so the sole is outward eversion
turning the foot so the sole is inward inversion
extending the foot at the ankle (bending the foot downward) plantar flexion
moving a part forward (thrusting the chin forward, for example) protraction
moving a part backward (pulling the chin backward, for example) retraction
moving a part around an axis (twisting the head side to side, for example) rotation
relationship of various body parts to one another alignment
area on which an object rests; stance with feet slightly apart base of support
physiologic study of the muscular actions and the functions of muscles in maintaining posture of the body body mechanics
abnormal flexion and fixation of a joint caused by atrophy contractures
lying horizontal on the back dorsal or supine
supine with head and shoulders up and extremeties moderately flexed dorsal recumbent
bending or flexing backward (lifting toes upward, for example) dorsiflexion
movement of joint that increases the angle between two adjoining bones extension
movement of joint that decreases the angle between two adjoining bones flexion
elevation of the head of the bed by 45-60 degrees fowler's position
kneeling so the weight of the body is supported by knees and chest genupectoral
extension beyond normal limit hyperextension
inability to move freely immobility
any connection between bones joint
resting on the side lateral position
supine with hips and knees flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally (childbirth) lithotomy
turning the patient in bed as a single unit while maintaining straight body alignment logroll
ability to move with ease and without restriction mobility
death of tissue necrosis
ability to breathe only in upright position orthopnea
posture assumed by patient sitting up at a 90 degree angle orthopneic
turn or change of direction with feet remaining in a fixed place pivot
ulcer that forms from local interference with circulation pressure ulcer
palm of hand turned downward pronation
lying face down prone
normal movement any joint is capable of making range of motion
modified fowlers position with head elevated 30-60 degrees and knees at 15 degrees semi-fowlers position
downward and forward pressure on tissues beneath the skin shearing force
palm forward or upward supination
lying on back supine
lying supine with head below legs and body trendelenburg position
lying on the side, usually the left side sim's position
factors that determine how much assitance one needs when moving a patient ability of pt to assist; activity level; weight; medical equipment; pain level; surgical sites; medical diagnosis; complications of immobility
hazards of immobility (caused by improper alignment or positioning) pressure ulcers; shearing force; contractures; fluid in lungs
patient teaching topics associated with immobility teaching family to assist in positioning; assessing the environment to prevent falls; ROM exercises; avoidance of prolonged sitting (stretching frequently); making position changes slowly to prevent orthostatic hypotension
nursing interventions to prevent complications of immobility repositioning; proper hydration/nutrition; ROM exercises; careful handling; proper positioning; early ambulation; antiembolism measures
things to consider when assisting a patient to ambulate orthostatic hypotension; appropriate ammount of support; avoidance of overtiring; if falling, support the head
this level of support involves only holding a patient's arm to provide stability and reassurance minimal support
this level of support requires caregiver to encircle the arm and support patients waist moderate support
it requires two people to provide this type of support maximum support
the patient conducts ROM exercises without assistance active ROM
the patient conducts ROM exercises with assistance from THEMSELVES active assisted ROM
the nurse conducts ROM exercises without the patient's help passive ROM
the nurse assists the patient to complete ROM that they are able to partially complete unassisted passive assisted ROM
contractile protein found in the thin myofilaments of skeletal muscle actin
when stimulated, a muscle fiber will contract fully or not at all all or none
those having opposing actions (muscles that flex the upper are are __________ to muscles that extend it) antagonist
broad fibrous sheets of connective tissue aponeuroses
wasting away of tissue atrophy
synovial fluid filled sac located between some tendons and bones, making movement easier bursa
increase in size, structure, or function (of a muscle) hypertrophy
type of muscle contraction in which muscle does not shorten and no movement is produced isometric
type of muscle contraction in which the muscle length changes, producing movement of a joint isotonic
the muscle mainly responsible for producing a particular movement prime mover
basic functional or contractile unit of skeletal muscle sarcomere
muscles that assist the prime mover with movement synergists
inflammation of the tendon sheath tenosynovitis
three types of muscle tissue skeletal, cardiac, smooth
muscle attachment to the bone that remains relatively stationary origin
point of attachment to the bone that moves when a muscle contracts insertion
main part of the muscle (between origin and insertion) body
three primary functions of skeletal muscles movement, posture (muscle tone), heat
this muscle puckers the lips orbicularis oris
muscle that surrounds the eye orbicularis oculi
muscle that raises the eyebrows frontal muscle
muscle that elevates the corners of the mouth and lips (smiling) zygomaticus
this muscle elevates the mandible (closes mouth) masseter
this muscle assists the masseter in elevating the mandible temporal
muscle in the front of the nexk that causes the head to move forward when flexed sternocleidomastoid
muscle in back of neck and shoulders that elevates the shoulder and extends the head when flexed trapezius
muscle that flexes the upper arm pectoralis major
muscle that extends the upper arm latissimus dorsi
muscle that abducts the upper arm deltoid
muscle that flexes the forearm biceps brachii
muscle that extends the forearm triceps brachii
the four abdominal muscles external oblique; internal oblique; transversus abdominus; rectus abdominus
two muscles associated with breathing diaphragm, intercostal
three muscles of the hips and groin iliopsoas; gluteus maximus; adductor muscles
three muscles of the hamstrings semimembranosus; semitendinosus; biceps femoris
the muscles of the quadriceps femoris group rectus femoris; vastus lateralis; vastus medialis; vastus intermedius
four major muscles of the lower leg tibialis anterior; gastrocnemius; peroneus; soleus
close mouth and produce chewing movements mastication
quick, jerky contractions that do now play a significant role in muscle activity twitch
contractions that are sustained and steady caused by a series of stimuli bombarding a muscle in rapid succession tetanic
contraction of a muscle that produces movement of a joint isotonic
contraction of a muscle that does not produce movement isometric
Created by: ewoff85