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growth and development

Preschool average growth in length & rates slow & steady, Average wt. gain <5 lbs/yr. height of 4 y/o is double birth length.Linear growth is bout 2-2.5 inches/yr
Erikson's Psychological development tasks from Prsechool 4-6 y/o, intitiative vs. guilt, children want to undertake many adultlike activities, sometimes going beyond the limits set by parent & feeling guilty bcuz of it.
Erikson's Psychological development tasks from School age. 7-11 y/o, industry vs. inferiority,children eargerly learn to be competent & productive or feel inferior & unable to do any task well
Erikson's Psychological development tasks from Adolescence 12-19 y/o, identity vs. role confusion, try to figure out "who am I?" They establish sexua, ethnic, & career identities or are confused about what future roles to play.
Erikson's Psychological development tasks from Young adulthood 20-44 y/o, intimacy vs. isolation, seek companionship & love w/another person or become isolated from others.
Piaget's Cognitive from Preschool- Preoperational thought: 2-6 yrs Develops egocentric thinking(understands world 4m only 1 perspective-that of self),uses trial & error 2 discover new traits/characteristics,conceptualizes time n present terms only,uses symbols 2 represent objects,develops more logical,intuitive thinkn
Piaget's Cognitive from School age: concrete operational 7-11 yrs understands & applies logical operations/principles 2 hlp interpret specific exp. or perceptions, has more realisticviews;better understands other viewpoints, improves use of memory, focuses on more than one task;develops logical,socialized thoughts
Piaget's Cognitive from School age: concrete operational 7-11 yrs cont'd recognizes cause & effect relationships, learns to identify behavio outcome,understands basic ideas of conversation,number classification,& other concrete ideas
Piaget's Cognitive from adolescence: Formal operational thought 12+ yrs uses a systematic,scientific problem-solving approach,recognizes past,present, & future,is able to think about abstractions &hypothetic concepts & is able to move in thought "4m real to the possible"
Piaget's Cognitive from adolescence: formal operational thought 12+ yrs cont'd becomes more interested in ethics, politics, and all social and moral issures as ability to take a broader and more theoretic approach to experience increases
Safety issues for preschool Use proper equipment that fits the child,Never leave children alone in pools of water. Teach children not to touch or go near pool drains.Inspect protective equipment(helmets etc.),use protective sunscreen.
Safety issues for school age Secure weapons in homes, develop a 0 tolerance program w/school officials.Wrk w/parent-teacher association to make schools safe,determine w/schoolofficials in emergency &security plan,manintain open lines of communication between child/parent/school
Safety issues for adolescence use safety helmets,properly fitting equipment,play on properly maintained surfaces,perform warm-up exercises before sports practice,avoid overuse,insiston adequate supervision,obtain proper training,treat existing injuries & prevent injury
Dietary for preschool high levels of protein-body systems & muscles still growing;Ca & Phosphorus-high mineralization of their teeth & bones;wt. increased of 20% or more indication of obesity
Dietary for early adulthood fewer calories than adolescence bcuz adult has completed biophysical growth:calories needed based on age,sex,size
Dietary for adolescence 12-19 @peak growth fem.=cal.2600/day;males=3600 calories/day;12%-16% protein;dificient i Ca+=skeletal growth,Iron=muscle & blood,zinc=generation of both skeletal & muscle tissue
Dietary for School Age child who prefers athletics over fine motor skills needs more calories.Diets high in saturated fats increase a childs risk for high cholesterol as well as earlier occurrence of heart disease unless steps are taken to lower these levels
Purpose of discipline for preschool remember listen to child,define acceptable as opposed to unaceptable behaviors,set limits,praise & reinforce,be consistent,clean slate,recognize escalating emotions & intervene,suggest "timeout",choose punishment that fits,stay calm,avoid putdowns,
Purpose of discipline for preschool cont'd necessary guidance includes offering alternative ways of expressing feelings & meeting needs, as important to a child as love & security
Purpose of discipline for School age verbal expression of threatening behavior or revenge,problems getting along w/peers,difficulty accepting authority & resistance to direction,outbursts of uncontrolled behavior,preoccupied w/weapons,bullying tendencies,frequent victimizing or teasing
Purpose of discipline for School age cont'd Socially isolated, poor school performance,violence to animals
Purpose of discipline for Adolescence recognizes ind.,accepts stregths & weaknesses,develops own value system,assumes responsibility 4 own behavior,develops philosophy of life,adapts 2 somatic changes (body),acquires skills necessary 4 adult livn,refines social livn,develops ind. livn skills
Leading cause of death Preschool-adolescence Preschool-Drowning School age-Accidents adolescence-MVA
Average sleep for preschool 11-12
Average sleep for school age 6 y/o need about 12 hours of sleep, 12 y/o needs about 10 hours of sleep
Average sleep for adulthood 7-9 hours
Physical characterists preschool (3-5) maturation of the nervous system,mastery of motor skills (least obvious), changes in size & shape (most obvious),vision farsighted,growth slow & steady
Physical characteristics school-age (6-12) Posture str8r check for scoliosis,growth pattern gradual & subtle, long bone of the extremities & in development of the facial bones, ht. & wt. increased y 2 in. & 4.5-6.5 lbs,motor skills boys=stronger girls=more graceful & accurate,body loses babyfat
Physical characteristics school age 6-12 cont'd vision 20/20, permanent teeth, P=55-90,r=22-24,b/p=110-65
Physical characteristics adolescence (12-19) begins @ puberty & to accompany those changes is in personality. Primary changes-reproductive changes (ovaries,breasts,uterus,testes,penis) secondary-(devlpmt of pubic & facial hair,voice changes,& fat deposits)
Physical characteristics adolescence (12-19)cont'd 2nd major period of growth females grow 2-8in (5-20 cm),males grow 4-12in (10-30 cm),females gain 15-55lbs(7-25 kg)males gain 15-65lbs(7-30kg)females-fat males-muscle,1st menstrual cycle signals adolescence,body shape r sex differentiated after puberty
Physical characteristics adolescence (12-19) cont'd males-broader shoulders,larger limbs,narrower hips. females-larger breasts,narrower waist wider hips and a lower center of gravity
Preschool vitals 3-5 yrs. Heart rate 70-110, Respiratory 23 breaths per min at rest, blood pressure 110/60, Temp-97 F-99F
At what age girls usually reach 98% of their height 16-17 yrs.
Kohlberg's Moral Development for preschool- Punishment–obedience orientationAge 2–4 years (preconventional morality) Determines good vs. bad dependent upon associated punishmentChildren may learn inappropriate behavior @ this stage if parental intervention doesn't occur (if the child hits, bites, or is verbally disrespectful but is not punished for these activities,
Kohlberg's Moral Development for preschool- Punishment–obedience orientationAge 2–4 years (preconventional morality)cont'd child will view those behaviors good & continue 2 participate in them)
Frued's Psychosexual for preschool to Phallic stageAge 3–7 years Child’s pleasure centers on genitalia and masturbation. Superego is developing and conscience is emerging.Oedipal stage occurs: jealousy and rivalry toward same-sex parent, withlove of the opposite-sex parent.
Frued's Psychosexual for preschool to adolescence Phallic stageAge 3–7 years cont'd This usually resolves by the end of thepreschool years, when the child develops a strong identification with thesame-sex parent.
examples of nondairy foods that will provide calcium broccoli & leafy greens
Frued's Psychosexual for School Latency A time of tranquility between the Oedipal phase of early childhood and adolescence—focuses on activities that develop social and cognitive
Kohlberg's Moral Development for School Age- Punishment onventionalStage 3: interpersonalconforming,“good child,bad child”Age 7–10 yearsStage 4: “law and order”Age 10–12 yea n act is wrong because it brings punishmentBehavior is completely wrong or rightDoes not understand the reason behind rulesIf child and adult differ in opinions, the adult is
Kohlberg's Moral Development for Adolescence- Punishment Postconventional Level IIIEarly (11–14 years)Middle (14–17 years)Late (17–20 years) orals based upon peer, family, church, and societal moralsAsks broad, usually unanswerable questions about lifeDeveloping own set of morals—evaluates individual morals inrelation to peer, family, and societal
Kohlberg's Moral Development for School Age- Punishment onventionalStage 3: interpersonalconforming,“good child,bad child”Age 7–10 yearsStage 4: “law and order”Age 10–12 year cont'd rightCan put self in another person’s positionBegins to exercise the “golden rule”Acts are judged in terms of intention, not just punishment
Frued's Psychosexual for School Latency cont'd skillsDevelops social skills in relating to same-sex friends through joining clubslike Brownies, Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts
Kohlberg's Moral Development for Adolescence- Punishment Postconventional Level IIIEarly (11–14 years)Middle (14–17 years)Late (17–20 years) cont'd moralsInternalizes own morals and valuesContinues to compare own morals and values to those of societyEvaluates morals of others
Created by: yvettep119