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CHAPTER 8,9,10

BIOILOGY

QuestionAnswer
GRANA A STACK OF MEMBRANE BOUNDED THYLAKOIDS IN THE CHLOROPLAST. FUNCTIONS IN LIGHT REACTIONS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
CHLOROPLAST AN ORGANELLE FOUND IN PLANTS AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PROTISTS THAT ABSORB SUNLIGHT & USES IT TO DRIVE THE SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER
CHLOROPHYLL A GREEN PIGMENT LOCATED IN THE CHLORORPLASTS OF PLANTS AND THE MEMBRANES OF SOME PROKARYOTES
HETEROTROPH AN ORGANISM THAT OBTAINS ORGANIC FOOD MOLECULES BY EATING THE ORGANISMS OR SUBSTANCES DERIVED FROM THEM
PHOTOAUTOTROPH AN ORGANISM THAT HARNESSES LIGHT ENERGY TO DRIVE THE SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM CARBON DIOXIDE.
AUTOTROPH USE ENERGY FROM THE SUN OR FROM OXIDATION OF INORGANIC SUBSTANCES TO MAKE ORGANIC MOLECULES TO MAKE INORGANIC ONES.
THYLAKOIDS FLATTENED MEMBRANEOUS SAC IN CHLOROPLASTS. EXIST IN INTERCONNECTED SYSTEM IN THE CHLOROPLASTS AND CONTAIN THE " MOLECULAR " MACHINERY" USED TO CONVERT LIGHT ENERGY TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ENZYME MACROMOLECULE SERVING AS A CATALYST A CHEMICAL AGENT THAT CHANGES AT THE RATE OF A REACTION WITHOUT BEING CONSUMED BY REACTION
DESCRIBE PHOTOSYNTHESIS 2 PARTS: IN THE CHLOROPLAST THT THYLAKOID MEMBRANES ARE THE SITES OF THE LIGHT REACTIONS WHERAS THE CALVIN CYCLE OCCURS IN THE STROMA. THE LIGHT REACTION USES SOLAR ENERGY TO MAKE ATP & NADPH WHICH SUPPLY CHEMICAL ENTERGY & REDUCING POWER RESPECTIVELY TO
THREE EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT PIGMENTS CHLOROPHYLL A, CHLOROPHYLL B, CAROTENOIDS
DISCUSS PHOTOSYNTHESIS NOT A SINGLE PROCESS BUT A DOUBLE PROCESS EA W/MULTIPLE STEPS. ONE STAGE IS LIGHT REACTIONS(PHOTO PART OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS & THE CALVIN CYCLE (SYNTHESIS PART). LIGHT REACTIONS CONVERT SOLAR ENERGY TO CHEMICAL ENERGY. CALVIN CYCLE INCORPORATES CO2 FROM THE A
DISCUSS FERMENTATION IN THE ABSCENSE OF OXYGEN MANY CELLS USE FERMENTATION TO PRODUCE ATP BY SUBSTATE-LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION PYRUVATE, THE END PRODUCT IS GLYCOLOSIS, SERVES AS AN ELECTRON ACCEPTOR FOR OXIDIZING NADH BACK TO NAD+ WHICH CAN THEN BE REUSED IN GLYCOLOSIS. 2 OF THE
DESCRIBE ALCHOHOL FERMENTATION #1 PYRUVATE IS CONVERTED TO ETHANYL IN TWO STEPS. THE FIRST RELEASES CARBON DIOXIDE FROM PYRUVATE WHICH CONVERTS TO 2 CARBON COMPOUND ACETALDEHYDE. #2 ACETELDEHYDE IS REDUCED TO BY NADH TO ETHANYL. THIS REGENERATES THE SUPPLY OF NAD+ NEEDED FOR CONTINUAT
DESCRIBE LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION PYRUVATE IS REDUCED DIRECTLY BY NADH TO FORM LACTATE AS AND END PRODUCT WITH NO RELEASE OF CO2 (LACTATE IS THE IONIZED FORM OF LACTIC ACID.
DISCUSS THE ATP CYCLE AN ORGANISM AT WORK USES ATP CONTINUOUSLY BUT ATP IS A RENEWABLE RESOURCE THAT CAN BE GENERATED BY THE ADDITION OF PHOSPHATE TO ADP. THE FREE ENERGY REQUIRED TO PHOSPHORYLATE ADP COMES FROM EXERGONIC BREAKDOWN REACTIONS (CATABOLISM) IN THE CELL. THIS SHUT
DESCRIBE RESPIRATION USES ORGANIC COMPOUNDS OXYGEN, CARBON DIOXIDE, WATER & ENERGY. CATABOLIC PATHWAYS OF ANAEROBIC & AEROBIC RESPIRATION WHICH BREAKSDOWN ORGANIC MOLECULES FOR PRODUCTION OF ATP.
ATP YEILD PER MOLECULE OF GLUCOSE AT EACH STAGE OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION DURING RESPIRATION MOST ENERGY FLOWS IN THIS SEQUENCE GLUCOSE >NADH >ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN >PROTON MOTIVE FORCE >ATP. TO CALCULATE THE ATP PROFIT WHEN CELLULAR RESPIRATION OXIDIZES A MOLECULE OF GLLUCOSE TO 6 MOLECULES OF CARBON DIOXIDE. THE 3 MAIN DE
DESCRIBE ATP CYCLE ENERGY RELEASED BY BREAKDOWN REACTIONS (CATABOLISM) IN THE CELL IS USED TO PHOSPHORYLATE ADP, PENETRATING ATP. CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY STORED ATP DRIVES MOST CELLULAR WORK.
DESCRIBE AND DRAW THE EFFECT OF AN ENZYME ON ACTIVATION OF ENERGY WITHOUT AFFECTING FREE ENERGY CHANGE (AG)FOR A REACTION AN ENZYME SPEEDS THE REACTION BY REDUCING ITS ACTIVATION ENERGY (EA)
DESCRIBE AND DRAW ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME CAPTIVITY (OPTIMAL TEMP FOR 2 ENZYMES) EACH ENZYME HAS AN OPTIMAL TEMP & PH THAT FAVOR THE MOST ACTIVE SHAPE OF THE PROTEIN MOLECULE. THERMAL AGITATION OF THE ENZYME MOLECULE DISRUPTS THE HYDROGEN IONIC BONDS & OTHER WEAK INTERACTIONS THAT STABILIZE THE ACTIVE SHAPE OF AN ENZYME & THE PROTEIN
CONTINUED DESCRIBE AND DRAW ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME CAPTIVITY (OPTIMAL TEMP FOR 2 ENZYMES) MOLECULE EVENTUALLY DENATURES. EACH ENZYME HAS AN OPTIMAL TEMP AT WHICH ITS REACTION RATE IS THE GREATEST. WITHOUT DENATURING THE ENZYME, THIS TEMP ALLOWS THE GREATEST # OF MOLECULAR COLLISIONS &THE FASTEST CONVERSION OF THE REACTANTS TO PRODUCT MOLECUL
DESCRIBE & DRAW ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME ACTIVITY (OPTIMAL PH FOR TWO ENZYMES. EACH ENZYME HAS OPTIMAL TEMP & PH THAT FAVOR THE MOST ACTIVE SHAPE OF THE PROTEIN MOLECULE. OPTIMAL PH VALUES FOR MOST ENZYMES FALL INTO THE RANGE OF PH 6-8 BUT THERE CAN BE ACCEPTIONS; EX; PEPSIN IS A DIGESTIVE ENZYME IN THE HUMAN STOMACH. IT WORKS BEST
CONT;2 DESCRIBE & DRAW ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME ACTIVITY (OPTIMAL PH FOR TWO ENZYMES. AT A PH OF 2. SUCH AN ACIDIC ENVIROMENT DENATURES MOST ENZYMES BUT PEPSIN IS ADOPTED TO MAINTAIN ITS FUNCTIONAL AND 3 DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE IN THE ACIDIC STOMACH. IN CONTRAST TRYPSIN A DIGESTIVE ENZYME RESIDING IN THE ALKALINE ENVIRO OF THE INTESTINE HAS
CONT;3 DESCRIBE & DRAW ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME ACTIVITY (OPTIMAL PH FOR TWO ENZYMES. AN OPTIMAL PH OF 8 AND WOULD BE DENATURED IN THE STOMACH.
CONCENTRATION OF H+ INVOLVED IN THE GENERATION OF ATP IN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS H+ FLOWS THROUGH ATP SYNTHASE, POWERS ATP GENERATION POWER SOURCE FOR THE ATP SYNTHASE IS A DIFFERENCE IN THE CONCENTRATION OF H+ ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE. THIS PROCESS IN WHICH ENERGY IS STORED IN FORM OF HYDROGEN ION
CONT 1;CONCENTRATION OF H+ INVOLVED IN THE GENERATION OF ATP IN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS GRADIENT ACROSS A MEMBRANE IS USED TO DRIVE CELLULAR WORK SUCH AS THE SYNTHESIS OF ATP CALLED CHEMIOSMOSIS(THIS IS THE FLOW OF H+ ACROSS A MEMBRANE) **STUDY OF ATP SYNTHASE SHOWED HOW H+ GENERATES ATP.
CONCENTRATION OF H+ INVOLVED IN GENERATION OF ATP IN BATERIA PROKARYOTES GENERATE H+ GRADIENTS ACROSS THEIR PLASMA MEMBRANES. THEY THEN TAP THE PROTON MOTIVE FORCE TO MAKE ATP.
STAGES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION GLYCOLSIS CITRIC ACID CYCLE OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
GLYCOLSIS IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION BREAKDOWN THE GLUCOSE INTO TWO MOLECULES FOR PYRUVATE (OCCURS OUTSIDE THE MITOCHONDRIA) OCCURS IN THE CYTOPLASM & HAS 2 MAJOR PHASES -ENERGY INVESTMENT PHASE (PUT ATP IN) -ENERGY PAYOFF PHASE
HOW IS THE REACTANT ATP USED & PRODUCTS MADE IN CELLULAR RESPIRTATION (FINISH) DURING GLYCOLOSIS A NET OF 2 ATP MOLECULES ARE MADE -2 ATP MADE DURING KREB CYCLE -34 ATP MADE DURING OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
HOW IS THE REACTANT 6H2O (WATER) USED & PRODUCTS MADE IN CELLULAR RESPIRTATION (FINISH) H20 IS MADE IN THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN.
Where do we get 38 ATP? 2 ATP made in glycolysis 2 ATP made in Krebs Cycle 34 ATP made in ETC 1 NADH = 3 ATP 10 X 3 = 30 1 FADH2 = 2 ATP 2 X 2 = 4
HOW IS THE REACTANT OF GLUCOSE (C6H12O6) USED AND PRODUCTS MADE IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION GETS OXIDIZED OUTSIDE MITOCHONDRIA DURING GLYCOLOSIS GLUCOSE TO PYRUVATE
HOW IS THE REACTANT WATER (6H2O) USED & PRODUCTS MADE IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION (FINISH) H20 IS MADE IN ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
HOW IS THE REACTANT CARBON DIOXIDE (6CO2) USED AND PRODUCTS MADE IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION (FINISH) 1 MADE DURING PYRUVATE>ACETYL CONVERSION 2CO2 DURING KREBS CYCLE
HOW IS THE REACTANT OF OXYGEN (6O2) USED & PRODUCTS MADE IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION (FINISH) GETS REDUCED WITH OXYGEN(O2)PRESENT PYRUVATE CAN ENTER MITOCHONDRIA FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR USED TO MAKE H2O IN ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN.
EQUATION OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION C6H12O6+ > 6CO2+6H2O+ATP+HEAT
HOW ARE INTERMEDIATES USED IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION THEY START OUT BEING MADE EARLY IN THE PROCESS AND BEING USED EARLY ON.
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION IN CELLULAR RESPERATION ACCENTS FOR MOST OF THE ATP SYNTHESIS OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION OCCURS IN TWO STEPS #1 ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN #2 CHEMIOSOSIS
CITRIC ACID CYCLE IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION COMPLETES THE BREAKDOWN OF GLUCOSE. WITH OXYGEN PRESENT ORGANIC MOLECULES MOVE INTO THE MITOCHONDRIA -BEFORE THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE CAN BEGIN, PYRUVATE MUST BE CONVERTED TO ACETYL (CoA) WHICH LINKS THE CYCLE TO GLYCOSIS. CITRIC ACID CYCLE IS AL SO CALLED
CONTINUED** CITRIC ACID CYCLE IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION KREBS CYCLE, TAKES PLACE WITHIN THE MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX. THE CYCLE OXIDIZES ORGANIC FUEL DERIVED FROM PYRUVATE GENERATING 1 ATP, 3 NADH & 1 FADH2 PER TURN (2 TURNS, 2 PYRUVATE MOLECULES
INTERMEDIATE REACTANTS IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS. HOW, WHERE USED AND WHATS MADE NADPH AND ATP ARE MADE IN LIGHT REACTIONS AND USED IN THE CALVIN CYCLE
REACTANT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS OXYGEN (6O2) HOW, WERE USED AND WHATS MADE 6O2 (OXYGEN) RELEASED DURING SPLITTING OF H2O IN LIGHT REACTIONS.
REACTANT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS GLUCOSE (C6,H12,O6) HOW, WHERE USED AND WHATS MADE C6 H12 06=GLUCOSE MADE IN CALVIN CYCLE FROM CO2 & ATP & NADPH
REACTANT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS CARBON DIOXIDE (6CO2) HOW, WHERE USED AND WHATS MADE 6CO2 (CARBON DIOXIDE) USED IN CALVIN CYCLE TO MAKE ORGANIC MOLECULES.
REACTANT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS WATER (6H2O)HOW, WHERE USED AND WHATS MADE 6H2O (WATER) -USED IN LIGHT REACTIONS -SPLIT BY LIGHT
REACTANT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS LIGHT HOW, WHERE USED AND WHATS MADE LIGHT USED TO SPLIT H2O IN THE LIGHT REACTIONS
ONE OF TWO STAGES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS CALVIN CYCLE IN THE STROMA FORMS SUGAR FROM CO2 USING ATP & NADpH THE CYCLE BEGINS WITH CARBON FIXATION INCORPORATING CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) INTO ORGANIC MOLECULES.
ONE OF TWO STAGES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS (RATHER THAN THE CALVIN CYCLE) LIGHT REACTION THE LIGHT REACTION IN THYLAKOIDS SPLIT WATER (H2O), RELEASE OXYGEN (O2), REDUCE NADP+ TO NADPH, GENERATE ATP FROM ADP BY PHOSPHORYZATION
EQUATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS LIGHT+6H2O + 6CO2 > C6H12O6 + 6O2 + INTERMEDIATES
DIFFERNCE BETWEEN CHLORAPHYLL A & B A SLIGHT STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THEM CAUSES TWO PIGMENTS TO ABSORB AT SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS IN RED AND BLUE PART OF THE SPECTRUM. AS A RESULT CHLORAPHYLL A IS BLUE GREEN AND CHLORAPHYLL B IS OLIVE GREEN. CHLORAPHYLL B IS AN ACCESORY PIGMEN
WHY DO DIFFERENT TYPES OF PIGMENTS EXIST IN CHLOROPLASTS BECAUSE THEY HELP DRIVE THE PHOTOSYNTHESIS PROCESS
WHICH WAVELENGTHS OF LIGHT ARE MOST EFFECTIVE IN DDRIVING PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WHY VIOLET BLUE AND RED PORTIONS OF THE SPECTRUM. BECAUSE THE CHLORAPHYLL ABSORBS VIOLET BLUE AND RED WHILE TRANSMITTING AND REFLECTING GREEN LIGHT. LIGHT CAN ONLY PERFORM WORK IN CHLOROPLASTS ONLY IF IT IS ABSORVED.
Created by: TRESCEE