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Female Reproduction

Lecture Unit 3

Gonads Primary sex organs. F-ovaries. M-testes. Functions: Produce sex cells (gametes). F-oocyte, M-sperm. Produce sex hormones: Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone. Affect maturation, development, & activity of repro system.
Puberty Initiated when hypothalamus begins secreting GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone). Stimulates release of gonadotropins FSH & LH from anterior pituitary. Stimulate gonads to make sex hormones.
Puberty part 2 Increased sex hormones start the process of gamete maturation & sexual maturation. Women release 1 egg each month. Men create 100-200 mil sperm each day.
Perineum Diamond-shaped area. Bordered by pubic symphysis, ischial tuberosities, and coccyx. Urogenital triagle & anal triangle. A male 7 female structure!
Vulva A region. Anything you can see on the outside of females.
Ovaries Primary sex organs. Smooth in young girls. Scarred & pitted after puberty. Tunica albuginea. Ovarian cortex-follicles (oocytes surrounded by follicle cells). Ovarian medulla-loose CT, contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, & nerves. Keeps eggs alive.
Oogenesis Meiotic maturation of primary oocyte to secondary oocyte. Begins in female fetus. Born w/ 1.5mil follicles. Ovary & oocyte remain inactive until puberty. By puberty about 400,000 follicles remain.
Embryonic and fetal period Oogenesis. Follicle Development.
Childhood Ovary is inactive. Houses primordial follicles.
Monthly, from puberty to menopause 1 egg released/month. Meiosis 2 completed only if fertilization occurs.
3 Phases of 28 Day Ovarian Cycle Follicular phase (days 1-13). Ovulation (day 14). Luteal phase (days 15-28).
Follicular phase Days 1-13. FSH and LH stimulate maturation of follicle. Bleeding day 1-uterus contracts.
Ovulation Day 14. Expulsion of oocyte from ovary, LH surge. Highest sex drive. Can get pregnant here.
Luteal Phase Days 15-28. Follicular cells turn into corpus luteum. Corpus luteum secretes estrogen & progesterone, preparing uterus. It breaks down into a white scar-corpus albicans. Decrease in hormone release=menstruation. Woman thinks she's pregnant.
Uterine Tubes AKA oviducts. Most common site of fertilization. Fimbriae enclose ovary only at time of ovulation. Mucosa-ciliated simple columnar. Cilia beat oocyte toward uterus. Muscularis-peristaltic waves. Serosa.
Ectopic Pregnancy Implantation outside of the uterus. Most common is tubal pregnancy: fertilized oocyte implants in uterine tube-unable to expand. Can't survive past week 8. Cramping. Tube may rupture. No way to treat that spares the embryo.
Uterus Posterior & superior to bladder. Functions: site of implantation. Support, protect, & nourish fertilized egg. Fundus, Body, Cervix, External os-filled w/ mucous plug that thins during ovulation.
Wall of the Uterus Perimetrium-serosa. Myometrium-muscularis, 3 smooth muscle layers. Endometrium-mucosa: Stratum functionalis-shed as menses. Stratum basalis.
Cervical Cancer Risk: HPV infection. HIV infection. Age, Low social status. Pap smear tests to detect. Treatment: Cone biopsy, hysterectomy. Not painful. 4,000 deaths/year in U.S.
Endometriosis Endometrium not shed out of vagina but displaced into oviduct or abdominal cavity. Can still grow in response to hormones, but menses not shed. Causes pain, scarring, & deformities. Treated w/ hormones/surgery.
28 Day Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle Menstrual Phase (Days 1-5). Proliferative Phase (Days 6-14). Secretory Phase (Days 15-28). Any variation occurs in the 1st 2 phases. Secretory phase is always 14 days.
Menstrual Phase Days 1-5. Functional layer is sloughed. Menstruating.
Proliferative Phase Days 6-14. Development of functional layer. Rebuild.
Secretory Phase Days 15-28. Progesterone secretion increases vascularization & development of uterine glands. If oocyte not fertilized, corpus luteum degenerates causing progesterone levels to decrease. Stratum functionalis sloughs off w/o it. Think you're pregnant.
Gonadotropin levels FSH and LH surge just before ovulation. LH-huge surge. FSH-smaller surge.
Ovarian hormones levels Estrogen surges before ovulation. Gets the egg ready. Progesterone surges after ovulation. It gets the uterus ready.
Vagina Fibromuscular tube inferior to uterus. Birth canal. Receives penis. Passage for menstruation. Highly distensible wall: mucosa, muscularis, adventitia. Fornix, rugae, vaginal orifice, vestibular glands, hymen-dense, irregular CT.
Vulva External genitalia. Mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule, urethral orifice.
Breast or mammary gland Mammary glands-prolactin, oxytocin. Lactiferous ducts-10-20 per breast. Nipple. Areola-pigmented, covered in sebaceous glands, changes color during pregnancy. Suspensory ligaments-CT, holds breast in place.
Breast Cancer Affects 1 in 8 women. can occur in men. Risk: genetic, increased exposure to estrogen over long period: Early menarche w/ late menopause. Obesity, never having been pregnant. Self breast exam and mammograms.
Menopause Normally occurs between the ages of 45 & 55. Cessation of ovulation & menstruation. Circulating levels of estrogen & progesterone decline. Reduction in size of uterus and breasts. Bone mass declines-osteoporosis.
Created by: punkaloo