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Worsham Micro Q1

Microbiology the study of microorganisms and their effects on other organisms
eukaryotic have a true nucleus and membranebound organelles
prokaryotic do not have a nucleus or membranebound organelles
taxonomical hierarchy Domain, Kingdom, Division/Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
3 primary Domains Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya
5 Kingdoms Prokaryote or Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plant and Animal
Binomial nomenclature formal system of naming species
Scientific study of bacteria bacteriology
Mycology scientific study of fungal organisms.
Rickettsiology scientific study of rickettsia
immunology study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms
simple, single-celled organisms that are prokaryotic, a member of the Monera Kingdom, and are generally 1 of 3 shapes basic characteristics of bacterial cells
what type of bacteria has no cell wall, is the smallest free-living organism and is intermediate in size between most bacterial cells and viruses Mycoplasma bacteria
what type of bacteria is generally involve an insect in disease transmssion to a human host, are obligate intracellular parasites, and cause diseases known as typhus fevers Richettsia bacteria
what type if bacteria is an obligate intercellular parasite and has a unique life cycle Chlamydia bacteria
what are the characteristics of Protozoa Eukaryotes (Domain), most are unicellular, the first formed animals(simpleast of animals), and Protista Kingdom
what are the characteristics of fungal organisms Eukaryotes (Domain), Fungi Kingdom, examples are mold and yeast
what are the characteristics of a virus submicroscopic, acellular, contains a nucleic acid core surrounded by a capsid containing either DNA or RNA
what does submicroscopic mean must be seen with an electron microscope
capsid protein coat
obligate intracellular parasites can only reproduce within a host cell and cannot survive outside the host cell
CJD a degenerative nuerological disease that is always fatal
CJD and mad cow disease are examples of prions
characteristics of prions abnormal infectious protein, very resistant to vacines, typical starilizing is not saficant, and causes diseases known as transmissible spongilform encephalopathies (TSE's) where the brain takes on a sponge-like appearance
what is the purpose of Gram Stain and Acid-fast stain to identify types of bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria means they tend to be more resistant to penicillin
what genus is Acid-fast used to id Mycobacterium
Leparacey and tuberculosis is identified by Acid-fast stain
morphology the study of shape and form without regard to function
bacteria is measured in micrometers
3 primary shapes of bacteria sphereical, rod-shaped & spiral
cocci (coccus) are sphereical or berry shaped
Staphylococcus aureus (skin abscess) and Streptococcus pyogenes (strep throat) are what shape cocci or sphereical
bacillus (bacilli) are rod-shaped or colum like
Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever), Shigella olysenteriae (shigellosis) and Clostridium tetani (tetanus are what shape bacillus or rod-shaped
vibrio are comma-shaped
spirochetes are helical (flexible when in motion)
spirillum are helical (rigid when in motion)
monomorphic does not change shape
pleomorphic does change shape
Most bacteria are monomorphic, T/F True
diplococci cocci that remain in pairs
streptococci cocci that remain attached in a chainlike pattern after dividing
tetrads cocci that divides in 2 planes & remain in groups of 4
sarcinae cocci that divides in 3 planes and remain attached in cube-like groups of 8
staphylococci cocci that divides in multiple planes and form grapelike clusters
diplobacilli bacilli that divides across the short axis and remain in pairs
strptobacilli bacilli that divides across their short axis and remains in chains
coccobacilli bacilli are oval and look so much like cocci they are called coccobacilli
capsule closely attached and organized outer layer of the cell wall
slime layer loosely attached and unorganized outer layer of the cell wall
glycocalyx a sticky, gelatinous coating secreted that surround the cell wall
how does the capsule or slime layer enhance virulence resisting phagocytosis
this type of bacteria has a capsule Streptococcus pneumoniae
flagella long, whiplike, filament-containing appendages that allow bacteria to move (motility)
monotrichous single polar flagellum
amphitrichous flagellum or flegella at both ends of a bacteria
lophotrichous tufts or bunches of flagella at one end of the bacteria
peritrichous flagella covering the entire surface
taxis is movement toward or away from a stimulus
phototaxis bacterial stimulus is light
chemotaxes bacterial stimuli includes chemicals
axial filaments or endoflagella unique type of flagella produced by spirochetes
an example of a bacteria that produces axial filaments is Treponema pallidum (syphilis)
pili (fimbriae) short hairlike or bristle-like appendages that allow bacterica to attach to surfaces
an example of bacteria that produces pili is Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea)
What are the main functions of a bacterial cell wall prevents rupturing when the water pressure inside is greater then outside and helps maintain the shape of the bacterium
peptidoglycan primary macromolecular network of a bacterial cell wall
A Gram-Pos cell wall has many layers or few layers of peptidoglycan many
teichoic acids are found in Gram-Pos or Gram-Neg Gram-Pos
A Gram-Neg cell wall has many layers or few layers of peptidoglycan few
Gram-Neg cell wall consists of lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, and phospholipids
What is the purpose of lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins and phosphlipids in what type of cell helps evade phagocytosis in Gram-Neg
Which is more susceptible to mechanical breakage, Gram-Pos or Gram-Neg Gram-Neg
What is the lipid portion of lipoplysaccharides called and referred to as Lipid A and endotoxin
When is endotoxin released when there is bacterial lysis
What are the 2 primary types of toxins endotoxin and exotoxin
what is an example of an atypical bacterial cell Mycoplasma
what is selective toxicity when the chemical difference in the bacterial cell wall from the host cells so that antibiotics will target the bacteria and not the host's cells
What is the digestive enzyme that can damage the bacterial cell wall that is present in saliva and mucus lysozyme
Which cell wall is almost completely destroyed by lysozyme Gram-Pos
What is a wall-less cell is called portoplast
When lysozyme is present a Gram-Neg the cell wall is not completely destroyed
spheroplast is what remains of a Gram-Neg cell and its wall after lysozyme
where is the plasma membrane located inside the cell wall, enclosing the cytoplasm of the cell
what is the most important function of the plasma membrane determines what substances exit and enter the cell
What are the types of movement of materials across membranes passive and active
when substances move with the concentration gradient, is that passive or active passive
how much ATP is expended in passive transport none
how do substances move against the concentration gradient active transport and use of ATP
what is simple diffusion the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through passive transport
what is facilitated diffusion substances are transported through the plasma membrane by using a carrier protein from high concentration to low concentration
carrier proteins are also known as transporter or protease
what is osmosis the simple diffusion of water
what is a solvent the substance the solute is being desolved in
what is a solute the substance being desolved
what is a solution the mixture of the solvent and solute
what are the 3 types of osmotic solutions a bacterial cell may be subjected to isotonic, hypotonic or hypertonic
isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic are describing the solute concentration outside the cell
when the solute concentration outside the cell is equal to the solute concentration inside the cell the cell is in what type of solution isotonic or in equilibrium
what is a hypotonic solution when the solute concentration outside the cell is lower than the solute concentration inside the cell
when a cell is in a hypotonic solution it may burst or collapse expand and burst
plasmoptysis or osmotic lysis is when a cell expands and bursts
hypo means less or under
hyer means above or more
what is a hypertonic solution when the solute concentratin outside the cell is high then the solute concentratin inside
when a cell is in a hypertonic solution it may burst or colapse shrink and collapse
when a cell undergoes plasmolysis it shrinks and collapses
in active transport is the the substance being transported chemically changed? no
what type of cells use group translocation and what is different about it prokaryotic cells and the substance is chemically altered
in a prokaryotic cell where is the cytoplasm inside the plasma membrane where all major structures are located
what are inclusions or inclusion bodies temporary storage of ATP and other nutriants, controls meterial being released throughout the cell
what are 3 other names for nuclear area nuclear body, nuclear region, nucleoid
what is the function of ribosomes protein synthesis
is the creation of an endospore a reproductive or a defense mechanism defense or protective
what type of cells create endospores, Gram-Pos or Gram-Neg Gram-Pos
What shape are the bacteria that create endospores rod-shaped
what is the process of spore formation called sporulation or sporogenisis
non-spor state is called vegetative state
germination of a spor is going from spor to vegetative
what are the important characteristics of the bacterial cell wall prevents rupture, helps maintian shape & integrity, point of anchorage for flagella, produces peptidoglycan
what type of cell has many layers of peptidoglycon superior to plasma membrane and contains teichoic acids Gram-pos
what type of cell only has 1 or few layers of peptodoglycan & an outer membrane, consists of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipoproteins & phosholipids and products 2 types of toxins Gram-neg
which is more susceptible to mechanical breakage, Gram-pos or neg Gram-neg
which is better at evading phagocytosis Gram-neg
Lipid A is referred to as an endotoxin
endotoxins are not released unless there is bacterial lysis
what are the 2 types of toxins endotoxins and exotoxin
endotoxins are apart of the Gram-neg cell wall
exotoxins are secreated to the outside of the cell
protoplast wall-less cell when the cell wall is destroyed by lysozyme in Gram-pos cells
spheroplast when the cell wall is not completely destroyed by lysozyme in Gram-neg cell
where is the plasma membrane of a bacteria cell located internal to the cell wall and enclosing the cytoplasm of the cell
what is the primary function of the plasma membrane of the bacteria cell determines what substances exit and enter the cell
what are 2 secondary functions of the plasms membrane of the bacteria cell enzymatic breakdown of nutrients and enzymatic production of ATP
passive transport allows substances to cross the membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration with the concentration gradient, no energy is used
active transport movement of substances in and out of the cell against the concentration gradient, using energy
simple diffusion net movement of molecules or ions from an area of high concentration to low concentration
facilitated diffusion movement of larger molecules from higher to lower areas of concentration by using a carrier protein (protease)
osmosis simple diffusion of water from an area of high concentration to low concentration
what effect would an isotonic solution have on the bacterial cell wall none, it would be in equilibrium
what effect would a hypertonic solution have on the bacterial cell wall the cell would shrink, collapse or undergo plasmolysis. concentration outside is higher then inside
what effect would a hypotonic solution have on the bacterial cell wall expand & burst; plasmoptysis; osmotic lysis. concentration outside is lower then inside
what type of cell uses group transport prokaryotic cells
what type of transport chemically changes during the transport process group transport
what types of transport use ATP group and active
what type of transport moves molecules against the concentration graident active transport
where is the cytoplasm in a prokaryotic cell inside the cell wall & plasma membrane
where is teh cytoplasm in a eukaryotic cell inside the cell wall & plasma membrane but outside the nueclus
where is the cell's genetic info located vuclear body (nuclear area, nuclear region, uncleoid)
what structure is responsible for protein synthesis ribosomes
function of the inclusion bodies temporary storage of nutrients
what shape are endospores Rod-shaped
What genera form endospores Clostridium and Bacillus
what would make a bacterial cell form an endospore the environment for the bacterial cell have changes so drasticly, the cell cannot survive
what is the non-spore state of an endospore forming cell vegetative
when returning to vegetative state germination
is an endospore is created is it for reproduction or protection protection
psychrophile bacteria that prefer cold, thriving at temps between 0-25 degrees C
mesophile bacteria that prefer moderate temps and develop best at temps between 25-40 degrees C
thermophile bacteria that thrive best at high temps between 40-70 degrees C
temp below which bacterial growth will not take place minimum growth temperature
temp above which bacterial growth will not take place maximum growth temperature
temp at which organisms grow best optimum growth temperature
what is the optimum pH for bacterial growth near neutral, range from 6-8
there is no net flow of water in or out of the cell when osmotic pressure is high
what are major nutrient requirements for bacteria water, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, iron, copper, molybdenum and zinc
why is water important to bacterial growth all require moisture but not all need the same amount
why is carbon important to bacterial growth structural backbone and one of the most important requirements for growth
why are N,S,P,Fe, Cu, Zn & molybdenum important for bacterial growth needed by the cell for protein synthesis, synthesis of DNA, RNA & ATP
bacteria that require complex organic food from a carbon source to grow & develop or "other feeder" heterotroph-most pathogenic bacteria
self-nourishing bacteria capable of growing in the absence of organic compounds, uses carbon dioxide autroph-plants
completely dependant on their living host for nutrients they need to survive obligate parasite
survives on dead or decaying organic matter obligate saprophyte
facultative parasite has the ability to adpat and survive on living organic matter but prefers dead or decaying organic matter
facultative saprophyte has the ability to adapt and survive on dead or decaying organic matter but perfers living organic matter
obligate aerobe microorganisms that can only live in the presence of oxygen, because they need it to metablolize sugars
obligate anaerobe microbes that can only survive in an environment devoid of oxygen
adapted to survival in the presence of oxygen but prefers the live without oxygen facultative aerobe
adapted to survival without oxygen but prefers the presence of oxygen facultative anaerobe
microaerophile microorganisms that require little free oxygen (2-10%)
microorganisms that thrive/require the presence of high concentrations of carbon dioxide, low oxygen capnophile
bacterial colony visible group of bacteria growing on a culture medium
more then 1 species mixed colony
pure colony only 1 species
simple transverse division binary fission
binary fission method of asexual reporduction in bacteria in which the parent cell splits into 2 parts (daughter cells)
time required for a cell to divide (population to double) generation time
bacterial growth calculation equation Bf=Bix2N
Bf is final bacterial population after a determinded amount of time
Bi is given value (number of bacterial cells)
N is number of generations
Created by: 1157564676