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Genetics

Genetics vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
trait a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring
genetics the scientific study of heredity
purebred an organism that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent (homozygous)
gene a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
alleles the different forms of a gene
dominant allele an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present; masks the recessive allele
recessive allele an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
hybrid an organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait
probability the likelihood that a particular event will occur
Punnett square a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
phenotype an organism’s physical appearance, or visible traits
genotype an organism’s genetic makeup, or allele combinations
homozygous having two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous having two different alleles for a trait
sperm a male sex cell
egg a female sex cell
meiosis the process that occurs in sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
mutation a change in a gene or chromosome
mitosis the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell’s nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell
Created by: skrebbeks
 

 



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