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Chapter 3 Tissues

Tissue terminology

QuestionAnswer
Microvilli - tiny projections that absorb nutrients, - also have membrane junctions
Plasma membrane (cell) Selects what goes in and out (all Have this)
Fluid Mosaic Model (Plasma Membrane) - Phospho-lipids (cushioning insulation) - Proteins (growth and repair) **** Both are double layered****
Phospho-lipids cushioning insulation
what do proteins do? growth and repair
semi-permeable Allows only certain substances in and out
simple diffusion higher concentration to lower concentration
Osmosis diffusion of H2O
Facilitated diffusion carrier molecules speed up diffusion rate
Filtration example kidneys
Active Transport cell uses energy (lower to higher) ** pulling in or out for the needs of the cell
Active Transport - example Arsenic - to keep out of cells
Active Processes move against a concentration gradient
Bulk transport Exo-cytosis - large particles leave the cell
Exo-cytosis Moves large particles out of the cell
Endo-cytosis Substance entering the cell 1. Phagocytosis 2. Pinocytosis
Phago-cytosis engulfs large solids - (and is called cell eating)
Pino-cytosis engulfs large liquids (cell drinking)
2 types of Endo-cytosis 1. Phago-cytosis 2. Pino-cytosis
What is Cyto-plasm - jelly like material in cells (like egg white) - (70%)H2O - (30%)proteins,lipids, minerals
What is Mito-chondria "powerhouse" "cellular respiration" "makes energy" (ATP)
Ribosomes Makes Protein Synthesis *** "the little dots"
Endoplasmic Reticulum - Transport system of proteins and lipids - Rough ER & Smooth ER
ATP Cycle Break ATP Bond and Rebuild
Golgi Apparatus Package and store proteins,lipids,carbs
Lysosomes Digestive organelles - (devour bad stuff)
Vacuoles Storage Organelles
Cyto-skeletal Supports cell, protein filaments
Centrioles - **Animal Cells ONLY" **animal cells ONLY" -Cell division (cylinders)
What is the Nucleus the control center
Nucleolus (Ncleoli-Plural) makes ribosomes & RNA
Chromatin All of your Chromosomes - 46 per cell - DNA -heredity (code of life) - thread like
Cell Life cycle 1-Inter-phase (Mitosis) 2-Pro-phase -Meta-phase 3-Ana-phase 4-Tele-phase
Inter-phase resting normal replicate DNA
Mitosis Cell Division
Pro-phase Chromosomes double
Meta-phase - (Chromatids)Line up in the middle & divide equally
Ana-Phase - Pairs split apart - single strands migrate to each end
Telo-phase - Cell membrane pinches in - Cyto-kinesis-cell divides(division of cytoplasm) - two new cells are formed (daughter cells)
Protein Synthesis deal with - - DNA - Deoxy-ribonucleic acid (w/out Oxygen) - RNA - Ribonucleic acid
Describe DNA - 2 strands - Never leave the Nucleus - - Double Helix
Describe RNA - 1 strand, - 2 kinds (transfer & Messenger)(TRNA & MRNA)
Primary functions of Epithelial Tissues - Protection - Absorption - Filtration - Secretion
Epithelial cells Have: - Close cell junctions - Basement Membranes - lowest surface Avascular - no blood supply, Diffusion Regeneration - very fast, Mitosis
3 cell shapes Epithelial Cells have are - Squamous - flattened - Cuboidal - cube shaped - Columnar - taller than wide
Squamous shape is Flattened
Cuboidal shape is Cube shaped
Columnar Shaped is more tall than wide
3 Types of Epithelial Tissues - Simple- single layer - Stratified - many layers - Pseudostratified - Looks like many layers but is only 1
Describe - Simple Squamous - one layer - Filtration - Diffusion - Thin
location of Simple Squamous Pericardium - Alveoli - Capillary walls
Describe -Simple Cuboidal - one layer - cube shaped - Not as thin as simple squamous for more protection
Locations of Simple Cuboidal - Ducts of glands - salivary & sweat glands - covering the ovary
Describe Simple Columnar - more tall than wide - have Goblet Cells(Secrete Mucous) - line the digestive tract
Location of Simple Columnar Digestive tract
Describe Pseudostratified Columnar -one cell layer (looks like many layers) -CILIATED w/Goblet Cells -line the Respiratory tract
what do the Ciliated Goblet cells in the Pseudostratified Columnar cells do? produces mucus to moisten & warm the air and catches bacteria
Describe Stratified Squamous ** Most protective - Several Layers / Flat - located at the portal of entry
Location of Stratified Squamous Rectum, Skin, lining of mouth
Describe Transitional *** Can Stretch - relaxed - many layers, - Stretched - one layer - Rounded on edges - Bladder or Uterus
Location of Transitional Bladder or Uterus
Body Tissues - Glandular Epithelial does what? Secretes
What does Endo-crine mean? - "in" - No Duct - Hormones---Blood
What does Exo-crine - "OUT" Ducts - Sweat,salivary, oil glands, bile duct, pancreatic duct
What is Exo-crine tissue lined with? Stratified cuboidal or Stratified Columnar
Functions of Connective Tissues - protects - supports - connects & binds Vascularized - "Good Blood supply" **except for Tendons,Ligaments & Cartilage Extra-cellular Matrix - "Like Jello"
What is Extra-cellular Matrix Non-Living - like Jello - Liquid - Gel Solid - Semi Solid - Solid
Connective tissues do what? Hold things together
Body Tissues - Fibers (2 types) Collagen = made of protein - White & Strong Elastin = Yellow & stretch
What is Collagen made of? Color? Proteins, White & Strong
What color is Elastin? What does it do? Yellow, & Stretch
4 kinds of Specialized Cells - Fibro-blasts - Osteo-cytes - Chondro-cytes - Macro-phages
What do fibroblasts do? Make fibers
What do Osteo-cytes do? Make bone cells
What do Chondro-cytes do? Make Cartilage Cells
What do Macro-phanges do? - Engulf Bacteria - Macro= BIG - Phanges= to Eat
2 Types of Connective Tissues - Loose - Dense
Describe Loose Connective Tissues - Liquid matrix - Fibers are COLLAGEN & ELASTIN - Cells are FIBROBLASTS - Fat Cells & Plasma Cells
Where is Loose connective tissue found? Areolar(most common)- Primary component of the Dermis layer of skin
What Matrix does Loose connective tissues have? Liquid
What Fibers does Loose connective tissues have? Collagen & Elastin
What cells do Loose connective tissues have? Fibroblasts
Describe Dense Connective Tissue "Fibrous" - Poor Blood Supply - Collagen fibers - few fibroblasts Tendons- bone to muscle Ligament- bone to bone
What Fibers does Dense Connective tissue have? Collagen Fibers
Where are Dense Connective Tissues found? Tendons & Ligaments
Adipose Fat
Describe "Adipose" - fat - Large Vacuole w/droplet of oil - Sub-cutaneous Layer around organs - Insulation & Cushion & Stores Energy - Good Blood Supply
Cartilage - no blood supply - Collagen & elastin fibers
Cartilage Matrix Cartilage cells in gel matrix
3 types of Cartilage 1. Hyaline - glassy (Rib, Fetus) 2. Elastin - Elastin Fibers (Outer Ear) 3. Fibro-cartilage - Collegen (Vert.Disc& Knees)
Bone "Osseous"
Bone Cells Osteocytes
Bone cells made of Collagen fibers
Bone cell matrix Solid matrix - Ca & P
Blood "Liquid"
Blood Cells (3) 1.Red, 2.White, 3.Platelets
Blood cells made of plasma & Fibers
Blood matrix Fluid
Muscle Tissues (3) 1. Skeletal - striated, 2. Cardiac, 3.Smooth
Describe Skeletal Muscle Tissue - Striations, - Voluntary, - Attached to bone, Gross movements
Describe Cardiac Muscle Tissue - Striations, - Involuntary, - Branching, - Heart
Describe Smooth Muscle Tissue - NO Striations, - Involuntary, - Blood vessels, - Organs of Digestion, - Peristalsis (wave contraction in digestion)
Describe Nervous Tissues - Irritability, - "react to stimuli", - Conductivity (flow of ions, Na+ & K+)
2 types of tissue repair 1. Regeneration, 2. Fibrosis
What is Regeneration Tissue repair with Good Blood Supply, Replacement with same type of cell, (Mitosis)
What is Fibrosis
Developmental Aspects of Tissues (step 1) 1.Growth - mitosis
Developmental Aspects of Tissues (step 2) 2.Aging - Collagen fibers loss, Muscle-loss, Bone-loss, Thinning of epithelial
Developmental Aspects of Tissues (step 3) 3.Neoplasms - Cancerous - Abnormal growth rapidly dividing cells. (Either Benign or Malignant)
Developmental Aspects of Tissues (step 4) 4.Hyperplasia - enlargement of body tissue
Developmental Aspects of Tissues (step 5) 5.Atrophy - Decrease in muscle size
Developmental Aspects of Tissues (step 6) 6.Hypertrophy - increase
Created by: toliver4