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Natural Rights rights of all people to dignity and worth
Affirmative action remedial action designed to overcome the effects of past discrimination against minorities and women
Women’s Suffrage the right of women to vote
Equal Protection Clause clause in the constitution that forbids any state to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. By interpretation, the Fifth Amendment imposes the same limitation on the national government. This clause is the major const
Due process Clause clause in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments stating that the national(5th) and state (14th) governments shall not deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
White Primary primary operated by the democratic party in southern states that, before Republicans gained strength in the “one-party South”, essentially constituted an election; riled unconstitutional in Smith vs Allwright (1944)
Racial Gerrymandering the drawing of election districs to as to ensure that members of a certain rach are always a minority in the district; ruled unconstitutional in Gomillion vs Lightfoot (1960)
Poll Tax payment required as a condition for voting; prohibited for national elections by the 24th amendment (1964) and ruled unconstitutional for all election in Harper bs Virginia Board of Election (1996)
Literacy Test literacy requirement imposed by some states as a condition of voting generally used to disqualify black from voting in the South; now illegal.
Majority/minority district a congressional district created to include a majority of minority voters; ruled constitutional so long as race is not the main factor in redistricting
Jim Crow Laws state laws formerly pervasive throughout the south requiring public facilities and accommodations to be segregated by race; ruled unconstitutional.
De jure segregation laws that made it a crime for a black or white people to go to school together, or to be served together in public places, or to sit together in public transportation.
De facto segregation segregations that comes about because of economics or results from individuals from individual choices.
Commerce clause the clause (article I) in the constitution that gives congress the power to regulate commerce among the states, with other nations, and with the Indian Tribes. This clause provides the constitutional basis for most national regulations of our economy, as
Class action suit lawsuit brought by an individual or a group of people on behalf of all those similarly situated
Racial or religious restrictive covenants a provision in a deed to real property excluding its sale to persons of a particular race or religion. Judicial enforcement of such deeds is unconstitutional
Created by: merzicle