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Naturalization a legal action conferring citizenship upon an alien
Dual Citizenship citizenship in 2 or more nations
Right of expatriation right of individuals to renounce their citizenship
Property Rights the rights of an individual to own, use, rent, invest in, but, and sell property
Contract Clause clause of the constitution that was originally intended to forbid state governments to modify contracts made between individuals; for a while interpreted to forbid state governments from adversely affecting property rights; no longer interpreted so broadl
Police Powers inherent powers of state governments to pass law to protect the public health, safety, and welfare; the national government has no directly granted police powers, but through other delegated powers accomplishes the same goals.
Eminent Domain powers of a government to take private property for public use; the US Constitution gives national and state governments this power and requires them to provide just compensation for property so taken.
Regulatory Taking government regulation of property so extensive that government is deemed to have taken the property by the power of the eminent domain, for which it must compensate the property owners.
Due Process established rules and regulation that restrain those in government who exercise power
Procedural due process Constitutional requirements that governments proceed by proper methods; power may be exercised
Substantive due process Constitutional requirements that governments act reasonably and that the substance of the laws themselves be fair and reasonable; places limits what a governments.
Search Warrant a warrant issued by a magistrate that authorizes the police to search a particular place or person, specifying the place to be searched and the objects to be seized
Exclusionary Rule requirement that evidence unconstitutional or illegally obtained be excluded form a criminal trial
Immunity protection granted by prosecutors to witnesses in exchange for giving up their constitutional right not to testify against themselves
Grand Jury a jury of 12 to 23 persons who, in private, hear evidence presented by the government to determine whether persons shall be required to stand trial; if the jury believes there is sufficient evidence that a crime was committed, it issues an indictment
Indictment a formal charge issued by a grand jury against an individual for a specified crime; also called a “true bill.”
Plea Bargain negotiations between prosecutors and defendant aimed at getting the defendant to plead guilty in return for the prosecutor’s agreeing to reduce the seriousness of the crime for which the defendant will be charged
Petit Jury a jury of 6 to 12 persons that determines guilt or innocence in a civil or criminal action
Double Jeopardy trial or punishments for the same crime by the same government; forbidden by the Constitution
Racial Profiling police target racial minorities as potential suspects for criminal activities
Community Policing recent programs to move police from patrol cars into neighborhoods, where they walk the beat and work with churches and other community groups to reduce crime and improve relations with minorities
Created by: merzicle