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Microbiology Test 3

A mature virus particle? Viron
Viruses contain? DNA or RNA
The protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid is called? Capsid
The capsid is composed of a number of protein units called? Capsomeres
Membrane derived from a host cell? Envelope
Some viruses have _______ on the viral surface. Spikes
Spikes are found only on _____ viruses. Enveloped viruses
Spikes aid in? Absorption
A naked piece of nucleic acid, like RNA, that can be infectious is? Viroid
Viruses are classified by what 4 categories? Size, nucleic acid, morphology, and number of capsomeres.
Viruses are grown in? Lab animals, embryonated eggs, cell cultures, or bacterial cultures.
The ability of a virus to infect an organism is regulated by what 4 things? Host species, type of cells, attachment sites, and cell factors.
A virus attaches to a cell membrane? Absorption
The virus is engulfed into the cell? Penetration
Once inside the cell, the virus looses its capsid? Uncoating
The viral DNA/RNA replicates by using the host cell's DNA? Biosynthesis
A new viral particle? Progeny
New viruses appear in the nucleus or cytoplasm? Maturation
New viruses are also called? Inclusion bodies or elementary particles.
When the new viruses burst out of the host cell, they create what with pieces of the nuclear membrane? Envelopes
A tadpole virus that infects bacteria? Bacteriophage or just phage.
A disease process that occurs gradually over a long period of time? Slow virus infection
A few slow virus infections are? Rubella, scrapie, CJV, Kuru.
What kind of virus remains in the host dormant after a long period but can still produce disease? Latent virus
An example of a latent virus is? Herpes simplex
What virus causes warts? Papovavirus
What virus causes the common cold? Rhinovirus
What virus causes mononucleosis? EBV or Epstein Batt virus
The AEDES mosquito spreads which virus? Arbovirus or togavirus, which causes Yellow fever, Dengue fever, Breakbone fever.
What virus causes rabies? Rhabdovirus
Inclusion bodies produced in the brain of the cerebellum are called? Negri bodies
Hep. A is found in? Contaminated food, it enters via the GI tract.
Hep. B is found in? Contaminated needles, sexual contact, and body fluids.
A blue-green or yellow-green pigment? Pyocyanin
Which gram negative rod bacteria has a grape like odor? Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes? Infection of the otitis (outer ear), UTIs, respiratory, and burns.
What bacteria is found in the intestines of humans, and is anaerobic gram negative rods? Pseudomonas acne
List all 8 enterics or coli-forms: Salmonella, shigella, E. coli, enterobacter, klebsiella, serratia, proteus, yersinia. (SSSEEKPY)
A bacterial infection spread from deer? Lyme disease- Borrelia burgdorferi
What bacteria is the greatest cause of blindness? C. trachomatis
What bacteria causes Parrot fever? C. psittaci
What bacteria can you get from chickens, ducks, pigeons, and turkeys? Ornithosis
What bacteria causes walking pneumonia or atypical pneumonia? M. pneumoniae, PPLO (Pleural Pneumonia Like Organisms)
What bactera causes TB? Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it's also an acid fast rod.
What two bacteria are in the Neisseria family? N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis
The two gram positive cocci are? Staph and Strept
The gram negative cocci is? Neisseria
The two anaerobic wound infections are? Bacteroids and Clostridium perfringenes
The study of fungi is called? Mycology
Unicellular fungi are? Yeasts
Multicellular fungi are? Molds
Yeast reproduce by? Budding
Molds produce thread-like filaments called? Hyphae
Hyphae with cross walls are called? Septate hyphae
Hyphae without cross walls are called? Aseptate or nonseptate hyphae
A mass of hyphae is called? Mycelium
Mycelium that obtain nutrients are called? Vegetative mycelium (the roots)
Mycelium that produce spores are called? Reproductive or aerial mycelium.
Spores do what for molds? They are a means of reproduction.
What are the 5 asexual spores? Arthrospores, blastospores, chlamydiospores, conidiospores, and sporangiospores.
What asexual spore is fragmented or rectangular? Arthrospores
What asexual spore buds? Blastospores
What asexual spore has thick walls, which are formed by segmentation of hyphae? Chlamydiospore
Chlamydiospores have 3 kinds: Terminal (at the end of the hyphae), intercalary (within the hyphae), and sessile (which are on the sides).
What asexual spore is produced in a chain? Conidiospores
What are the various Conidiospore structures? Microcondia (little hairs), and Macroconidia (in a pod). Then we have Conidiophore (the trunk), vesicles (the body), phialide (fingers or branches), and conidia (the attached spores, no more then 6).
Penicillin is shaped like a: Goblet
Aspergillus is shaped like a: Medusa with snakes!
What asexual spore forms at the end of a hyphae? Sporangiospores
What are the 3 kinds of sexual spores? Ascospores, basidiospores, and zygospores.
What sexual spore passes the nucleus of a male thru a bridge into a female cell and fuse? Ascospores
The female sexual spore cell becomes an? Ascus (sac like structure which contains 2-8 ascospores)
What sexual spore forms on a pedestal? Basidiospores, the pedestal is called a Basidium.
What sexual spore is produced when two hyphae form an arm and extend to meet each other? Zygospore or oospore.
A __________ is formed when two hyphae form a thick wall. Zygosporangium
Some fungi have 2 forms of growth: Dimorphic
Dimorphic fungi grow at ____ as a yeast, and at ____ as a mold. 37 degrees, and 25 degrees.
What are the two phylums of fungi? Perfect fungi- non-pathogens, and Imperfect fungi- pathogenic in humans.
Imperfect fungi reproduce by? Asexual reproduction
Ringworm is caused by: Tinea
Ringworm of the nails: Tinea unguium
Ringworm of the beard and neck: Tinea barbae
Ringworm of the scalp: Tinea capitis
Ringworm of the scalp has two kinds: Ectothrix (outside the hair shaft) and Endothrix (inside the hair shaft)
Ringworm of the body: Tinea corporis
Ringworm of the groin and anal region: Tinea cruris
Ringworm of the foot: Tinea pedis (Athlete's foot)
Ringworm that discolors areas of the skin: Tinea vesicolor
A dimorphic fungi found in timber, rose thorns, and metal: Sporothrix, causes "Rose fever"
A normal flora of the bowel, skin, vagina: Candida albicans- diamorphic yeast
Candida albicans can cause the follow issues: Oral thrush and vulvovaginities. It also affects the nails, lungs, urinary, intestinal, and brain and blood.
Candia albicans is identified by: Grown at room temp., grows as a smooth white colony with a wine odor.
A __________ is a hyphae that proceeds from a bud. Germ tubes
Aspergillus causes: A fungus ball in the lungs!
What are the 4 classifications of medical mycosis-fungal diseases? Superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, and systemic.
What kind of fungal disease infects the outer layer of skin, nails, hair? Superficial
What kind of fungal disease destroys the keratin of the skin, hair, nails? Cutaneous
What kind of fungal disease infects the skin, muscles, and connective tissues? Subcutaneous
What kind of fungal disease infects deep tissues and organs? Systemic
A fungal disease that spreads throughout the body is said to: Disseminate
What are the two categories of parasites? Protozoans and helminths.
Protozoans reproduce: Sexually and asexually.
What are the two kinds of Helminths? Flatworms and Roundworms.
Which host harbors the adult stage helminth? Definitive host
Which host harbors the larva stage helminth? Intermediate host
Flatworms have both male and female parts: They are hermaphroditic.
What are the 4 important kinds of flukes (flatworms)? Intestinal, lung, liver, and blood.
The life cycle of a fluke includes: Eggs --> miracidium (which hatch, enter a snail) --> produces Rediae --> which develop into Cercaria (which bore out of the snail) --> they penetrate crayfish and encyst as a Metacercaria --> Humans or a larger fish eat this and it develops into a fluke.
The head of a tapeworm is called? Scolex
The sections or segments on a tapeworm are called? Proglottids
Proglottids in the neck region are called? Immature proglottids
Proglottids that contain reproductive organs are called? Mature proglottids
The large proglottids at the end of the tapeworm that contain the eggs are called? Gravid proglottids
Arthropods that transmit diseases by sucking human blood are: Mites, ticks, lice, fleas, mosquitoes, assassin/kissing bugs.
Created by: 51001500