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Organic Chem Qtr 3

Organic Chem Qtr 3 Final

The branch of chemistry that deals with certain carbon containing compounds Organic Chemistry
An organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen Hydrocarbon
A chemical formula expressing the number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of a substance without indicating how they are linked Molecular Formula
A chemical formula showing the spatial arrangement of the atoms and the linkage of every atom Structural Formula
The possession by 2 or more distinct compounds of the same molecular formula, each molecule having the same # of atoms of each element but in a different arrangement Isomerism ex: Glucose, Fructose, Galactose (C6H12O6)
A condensed version of the structural formula, written all on one line and demonstrating the relationship of the substituent groups in a molecule Line Formula
Expression of the fixed ratio between carbon and hydrogen in hydrocarbons Type Formula
Pertaining to any member of one of the two major groups of organic compounds, those having straight or branched chain structures Aliphatic
A specific atom or group of atoms that is attached to a carbon atom in an organic compound & that imparts an identifiable chemical behavior to the compound Functional Group
A formula that denotes a class of compounds and includes the functional group and a symbol R denoting a radical General Formula
The existence of an element in 2 or more distinct forms ex: O, O2, O3 Allotropism
A hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds Saturated Hydrocarbon
A saturated hydrocarbon that has only carbon-carbon single bonds Type Formula: CnH2n+2 Alkane
A monovalent radical formed when an alkane loses one hydrogen atom Type Formula: CnH2n+1 Alkyl Group
An aliphatic hydrocarbon with one or more halogen atoms attached. Gen. Formula: RX Alkyl Halide
An organic compound that has one or more double or triple bonds between two carbon atoms Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
An unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond Type Formula: CnH2n Alkene
An unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon-carbon triple bond Type Formula: CnH2n-2 Alkyne
Any compound containing a resonace-stabilized ring Aromatic
Pertaining to ring compounds that contain one or more elements other than carbon in the ring Heterocyclic Compounds
A large molecule made by linking together any number of monomers, or basic chemical units Polymer
An organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups. Gen. Formula: ROH Alcohol
An alcohol with only one hydroxyl group ex: Isopropanol, Tert-butanol Monohydroxy Alcohol
An alcohol containing two hydroxyl groups ex:Ethylene Glycol Dihydroxy Alcohol
An alcohol having three hydroxyl groups ex: Glycerol Trihydroxy Alcohol
Those alcohols generally having more than three hydroxyl groups ex: Sorbitol Polyhydroxyl Alcohol
An alcohol in which the hydroxyl group is attached to a carbon that is attached to no more than one other carbon ex: Methanol (Methyl Alcohol, Wood Alcohol) Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol, Grain Alcohol) Primary Alcohol
An alcohol in which the hydroxyl group is attached to a carbon that is attached to two other carbons ex: Isopropanol (Isopropyl Alcohol, Rubbing Alcohol) Secondary Alcohol
An alcohol in which the hydroxyl group is attached to a carbon that is attached to three other carbons ex: Tert-butanol Tertiary Alcohol
A chemical compound similar to alcohol in which the oxygen of the hydroxyl group is replaced by a sulfhydral group (-SH) Gen Formula: RSH Thioalcohol/Mercaptan
Any organic compound with the gen. formula ROR', where R & R' are hydrocarbon groups formed by dehydration between two alcohols Ether *Formed during the dehydration of an alcohol where sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is the dehydrating agent
An organic compound containing one or more -CHO groups formed by the oxidation of a primary alcohol Gen Formula: RCHO *-CHO is at the end of the chain Aldehyde
Name some examples of aldehydes *Methanal (Formaldehyde, HCHO) *Ethanal (Acetaldehyde) *Benzaldehyde (an aromatic)
An organic compound containing two aldehyde radicals ex: Glyoxal, Glutaraldehyde Dialdehyde
Formaldehyde gas dissolved in water at 37% by weight and 40% by volume Formalin
Any of a class of organic compounds containing the carbonyl group (C=O) whose carbon atom is joined to two other carbon atoms; the carbonyl group occurs within the carbon chain Ketone ex: Propanone (Acetone)
How are ketones formed? What is their general formula? *By the oxidation of a secondary alcohol *Gen Formula: RCOR
An organic compound containing the carboxyl group (-COOH) at the end of the carbon chain *Gen Formula: RCOOH Carboxylic Acid ex: Methanoic Acid (Formic Acid) Ethanoic Acid (Acetic Acid, Vinegar)
A compound with the general formula RCOOR' formed from an alcohol and organic acid by the removal of wather *Functional group is in the middle of the chain Ester ex: Ethyl Acetate, Methyl Salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen)
An organic compound containing nitrogen; formed from ammonia by replacement of 1 or more hydrogen atoms by organic radicals Gen Formula: RNH2 *Organic Base, -NH2=Amino Group (functional group) Amine ex: Methyl Amine
Any compound derived from ammonia by substitution of a carbonyl (C=O) for hydrogen or from an organic acid by replacing the -OH of the carboxyl with an amino group Amide ex: Diethyl Formamide, Urea
Name the general formula for an amide. How are they formed? *Gen Formula: RCONHR *Formed by the reaction of an organic acid with ammonia or with amines **Salts formed by a neutralization reaction *Have an amide bond btn. a carbonyl group and a nitrogen
Surface-active agents that are usually used for disinfection of skin, oral, and nasal cavities & instruments; germicidal ex: Benzyl Alkonium Chloride(Zephiran Chloride, Roccal) Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
How are QUATS formed? Name the quaternary ammonium ion. *Quaternary ammonium salts are formed by the action of tertiary amines with organic halides *[NR4+]
A compound of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen that is an aldehyde or ketone derivative of a polyhydroxy alcohol Carbohydrate
A sugar in which the functional groups are hydroxyl groups (-OH) and an aldehyde group (-CHO) Aldose
A sugar whose functional groups are hydroxyl groups (-OH) and a ketone group (C=O) Ketose
The simplest form of a carbohydrate consisting of a single sugar molecule **they CANNOT be hydrolyzed to a smaller carb. molecule Monosaccharide
Name 3 Monosaccharides Glucose, Fructose, Galactose *Molecular Formula: C6H12O6
What does the oxidation of monosaccharides produce? Carbon Dioxide and Water
A carbohydrate formed by the linking of two monosaccharide units (also forms water in a dehydration synthesis reaction) *Hydrolysis yields monosaccharides Disaccharide
Name 3 Disaccharides Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose *Molecular Formula: C12H22O11
A polymer made by linking together a number of simple sugar molecules (3+) *Hydrolysis yields disaccharides, further hydrolysis yields monosaccharides Polysaccharide
Name 3 Polysaccharides Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose
A 5 carbon sugar molecule Pentose
A 6 carbon sugar molecule Hexose
An animal starch made by forming chains of alpha glucose molecules; storage form of glucose in the liver and muscle Glycogen
A chemical reaction in which a substance is broken down by water Hydrolysis
Created by: sbarton