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Lifespan dev ch 9

Chapter 9: Middle childhood

rough-and-tumble play vigorous play involving wrestling, hitting, and chasing, often accompanied by laughing and screaming
body image descriptive and evaluative beliefs about one's appearance
hypertension chronically high blood pressure
acute medical conditions illnesses that last a short time
chronic medical conditions illnesses or impairments that persist for at least three months
asthma a chronic respiratory disease characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and difficulty in breathing
concrete operations third stage of Piagetian cognitive development (approximately ages 7 to 12), during which children develop logical but not abstract thinking
seriation ability to order items along a dimension
transitive inference understanding of the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object
class inclusion understanding of the relationship between a whole and its parts
inductive reasoning type of logical reasoning that moves from particular observation about members of a class to a general conclusion about that class
deductive reasoning type of logical reasoning that moves from a general premise about a class to a conclusion about a partcular member or members of the class
executive function conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems
metamemory understanding of processes of memory
mnemonic strategies techniques to aid memory
external memory aids mnemonic strategies using something outside the person
rehearsal mnemonic strategy to keep an item in working memory through conscious repetition
organization mnemonic strategy of categorizing material to be remembered
elaboration mnemonic strategy of making mental associations involving items to be remembered
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) individual intelligence test for school age children, which yields verbal and performance scores as well as combined score
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT8) Group intelligence test for kindergarten through 12th grade
cultural bias tendency of intelligence tests to include items calling for knowledge or skills more familiar or meaningful to some cultural groups than to others
culture free tests intelligence tests that, if they were possible to design, would have not culturally linked content
culture-fair tests intelligence tests that deal with experiences common to various cultures, in an attempt to avoid cultural bias
culture-relevant tests intelligence tests that would draw on and adjust for culturally related content
theory of multiple intelligences Gardner's theory that each person has several distinct forms of intelligence
triarchic theory of intelligence Sternberg's theory describing three elements of intelligence: componential, experiental, and contextual
componential element Sternberg's term fo the analytic aspect of intelligence
experiental element Sternberg's term for the insightful or creative aspect of intelligence
contextual element Sternberg's term for the practical aspect of intelligence
tacit knowledge Sternberg's term for information that is not formally taught or openly expressed but is necessary to get ahead
Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (STAT) test that seeks to measure componential, experiental, and contextual intelligence
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC-II) nontraditional individual intelligence test designed to provide fair assessments of minority children and children with disabilities
pragmatics set of linguistic rules that govern the use of language for communication
English-immersion approach approach to teaching English as a second language in which instruction is presented only in English
bilingual education System of teaching non-English-speaking children in their native language while they learn English, and later switching to all-English instruction
bilingual fluent in two languages
two way (dual-language) learning approach to second-language education in which English speakers and non-English speakers leanr together in their own and each other's languages
decoding process of phonetic analysis by which a printed word is converted to spoken form before retrieval from long-term memory
visually based retrieval process of retrieving the sound of a printed word when seeing the words as a whole
phonetic (code-emphasis) approach approach to teaching reading that emphasizes decoding of unfamiliar words
whole-language approach approach to teaching reading that emphasizes visual retrieval and use of contextual clues
metacognition awareness of a person's own mental processes
social capital family and community resources on which a personc an draw
mental retardation significantly subnormal cognitive functioning
dyslexia developmental disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age
learning disabilities (LDs) disorders that interfere with specific aspects of learning and school achievement
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility, impulsivity, and low tolerance for frustration, and inappropriate overactivity
creativity ability to see situations in a new way, to produce innovations, or to discern previously unidentified problems and find novel solutions
convergent thinking thinking aimed at finding the one right answer to a problem
divergent thinking thinking that produces a variety of fresh, diverse possibilities
enrichment programs programs for education the gifted that broaden and deepen knowledge and skills through extra activities, projects, field trips, or mentoring
acceleration programs programs for educating the gifted that move them through the curriculum at an unusually rapid pace
Created by: nancyms
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