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# Acutus Mens

### Science Reviews

Define wave. A periodic disturbance in a solid, liquid, or gas as energy is transmitted through a medium.
Give 3 examples of media. Solid, Liquid, Gas
What 2 things can waves travel through? Matter and Space
What does a wave carry? Energy
What kind of waves require a medium? Mechanical Waves
What kind of waves do NOT require a medium? Electromagnetic Waves
What do we call waves that are produced by a combination of longitudinal and transverse waves? Surface Waves
What is amplitude? Why is it significant? Height of the wave from the rest point; Larger amplitude = more energy
What is frequency? Why is it significant? The number of waves produced in a given amount of time; as frequency increases, wavelength decreases and vice versa
How do we calculate wave speed? Wave speed (γ) = wavelength (λ) X frequency (f)
What is the relationship between frequency and wavelength? As frequency increases, wavelength decreases and vice versa
Differentiate between reflection, refraction, and diffraction. Reflection – the bouncing back of a wave; Refraction – the bending of a wave as it changes medium; Diffraction – bending of a wave around a corner or through a hole
What is interference? Explain the two types of interference. When waves overlap. Constructive – waves overlap and builds (gets louder or brighter); Destructive – waves overlap and collapse (dimmer light or creates noise)
What is a standing wave? Give an example. Pattern of vibration that stimulates a wave that is standing still (looks like it is standing still); car wheels spinning while driving
Explain resonance. Give an example. When 2 objects naturally vibrate at the same frequency; sound produced by one causes the other to vibrate; loud radio bass causes mirrors to vibrate
What kind of wave is a sound wave? Mechanical and Longitudinal
How does sound travel? By vibration
In what direction do sound waves travel? All directions.
Define a medium. An object through which a wave travels (solid, liquid, gas).
What are the 3 sections of the ear? Outer, Middle, Inner
What are the 3 bones in the middle ear called? Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup
What is responsible for transmitting sound electrically to the brain? Cochlea
Predict what may have happened if a person has lost their hearing (answers will vary).
What are the 3 kinds of instruments? Strings, Winds, Percussion
What is pitch? How is it related to frequency? How low or high a sound seems to be; high pitch = high frequency and low pitch = low frequency
What do we call sounds that have a frequency too high to hear? ultrasonic
What happens when a jet breaks the sound barrier? Build up of constructive interference; as the jet reaches the sound barrier, the constructive waves move quickly to the back of the jet resulting in rapidly moving particles that create a sound know as a “sonic boom”
Describe the Doppler effect . Change in frequency of a wave when the source or observer is in motion (like severe weather warning sirens).
Define noise. Random mix of frequencies (depends on listener).
Define loudness. What is the unit used to measure loudness? How well a sound can be heard; decibel
How are amplitude and frequency related? High amplitude = high frequency and vice versa
What is used to change a longitudinal sound wave into a transverse wave? Oscilloscope
What is an echo? Reflected sound wave
What surface reflects an echo the best? Flat, smooth surface
What is an electronic echo called? Radar
What do we call the process of using sound to locate an object? echolocation
What medical procedure allows us to “see” inside the body without surgery? Ultrasonography (ultrasound)
Define a sonic boom. The crashing of constructive waves built up as a jet passes through the sound barrier. The particles crash together all at once resulting the very loud sound.
What are the 2 kinds of standing waves? Fundamental and resonant frequencies
Define sound quality. Blending of pitches through interference.
Define noise. Random mix of frequencies (depends on listener).
What is an electromagnetic wave? A wave that is made of electric and magnetic fields that vibrate – does not require a medium.
Define radiation. Transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
What is the electromagnetic spectrum? All the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation; divided based on wavelength
List the waves of the electromagnetic spectrum in order from longest to shortest. Radio Waves, Microwaves, Infrared, Visible Light, Ultraviolet, X-Rays, Gamma Rays
Differentiate between the 2 kinds of reflection. Regular – reflection seen when using a flat, plane mirror; Diffuse – reflection seen when using a contoured mirror (like a fun house mirror).
Compare absorption to scattering. Absorption – light particles are absorbed by the object (very little light is reflected); Scattering – light is largely reflected (like a disco ball)
What is refraction? Give an example. Bending of a wave as it changes medium; a light beam travelling through a piece of paper (gas to solid, then back to gas)
Define diffraction. Bending of light around corners or through a hole (under a door, etc.)
What are the three things light can do? Reflect, Absorb, and Transmit
What are the 3 kinds of objects and how do they relate to light? Opaque – absorbs part of light and reflects the rest; Transparent – transmits light; Translucent – absorbs part and scatters the rest.
When we look at an object, what color do we see? The color of light that is reflected.
What happens to the other colors that are not reflected by an object? They are absorbed.
What are the three primary colors of light? Red, Blue, and Green
When the 3 primary colors of light are combined in equal amounts, what do they create? White light
What is pigment? An opaque substance that reflects and absorbs light.
What are the three primary pigment colors? Cyan, Magenta, Yellow
When the three primary pigments are added together in equal amounts, what is the result? Black
Compare the primary colors of light to the primary colors of pigments. Light – Red, Green, and Blue – combine to make white light; Pigments – Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow – combine to make black
Draw a convex and concave lens/mirror. Concave - like a cave, Convex - sticks out
What is a plane mirror? Flat mirror
Which type of lens magnifies? convex
Which type of lens make images appear fine and crisp? concave
What are the 2 most common vision problems? Nearsightedness and farsightedness
What is the function of the following parts of the eye: retina, pupil, lens, optic nerve, cornea, iris? Retina – contains rods (black,white) and cones (color) Pupil – where light passes through Lens – refracting convex lens Optic Nerve – flips image right side up and sends signals to brain Cornea – provides shape to the eye Iris – colored portion of the eye
Name 3 ways light affects your life (answers will vary). Cameras, Telescopes, Lasers, etc.
What are the properties of a magnet? Material that attracts ferromagnetic material.
What are the opposite ends of a magnet called? poles
What is magnetic force? The push or pull exerted by a magnet.
Explain how a magnetic field works. The area around a magnet where t he magnetic force is effective.
How can a magnet lose its’ magnetic alignment? (How can you destroy a magnetic field?) Striking it very hard, dropping from a very high altitude, heating it.
How can you create a magnet? Rub a ferromagnetic material on a strong magnet – only temporary.
How is the Earth like a magnet? Has a magnetic field, made of spinning electrons
Explain the relationship between north and south poles on a magnet. Like poles repel, opposite poles attract.
How does a compass work? Magnetized needle that aligns itself with the magnetic pull of the Earth (pointing North).
What happens when you break a magnet? You get 2 new (less powerful) magnets.
Give an example of a magnetic light show. Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights)
What is generated when charges flow through a wire? Electric current
What is the unit used to express the amount of charge that flows through a wire? Amperes (amps)
What does an electric current produce? What happens if the current reverses? A magnetic field; the magnetic field reverses as well.
What can electrical current flow through? A circuit.
Define an electric circuit. The closed path through which charges can flow.
What are the 3 components to a circuit? Energy source, wires, load.
Compare a conductor to an insulator and give an example of each. Conductor moves current easily – the electrons are loosely bound. Copper is an excellent example. Insulator prevents current from moving – the electrons are tightly bound. Rubber is an excellent example.
What happens when you flip a switch? The circuit closes and the electrons are free to move.
What is resistance? The opposition to the flow of a charge.
What object is used to help control resistance? A resistor.
Give an example of how resistance is very useful in our lives. Prevents electrical fires. Your toaster would blow up without resistance!
Compare a series and a parallel circuit. Use drawings if necessary. Series connects loads in only one path. Parallel connects to loads on both sides providing multiple paths for current to flow.
What are the characteristics of a superconductor? No electrical resistance, very efficient, strongly repels magnets, must be kept very cool.
How does an electric motor function? Changes electrical energy into mechanical energy.
What is a galvanometer? A device, run by an electromagnet that detects current.
What is an armature? A coil or loop in a motor that provides movement for a charge.
What is the function of a commutator? Reverses the direction of a charge.
How does an electric generator work? Changes mechanical energy to electrical energy.
What function does a transformer serve? Speed up or slows down current as it flows through wires.
What is ferromagnetic material and how is it used in electromagnets? Material made from iron or nickel that is highly attracted to magnets. It provides the core to an electromagnet.
How does an electromagnet function? Has 2 poles that act like switches; when attached to an energy source the ferromagnetic material becomes magnetized.
What is the coil called that is used in an electromagnet? A solenoid.
How can you increase or decrease the power/strength of an electromagnet? Increase or Decrease the number of coils in the solenoid or add a stronger/weaker ferromagnetic material.
Give an example of an electromagnet. A crane in a junkyard, but all of your technological devices contain electromagnets.
What does the law of electric charges state? Like charges repel, opposites attract.
How are an electric force and an electric field related? An electric force creates an electric field.
Describe 3 ways to charge an object. Give examples. Friction–rubbing balloon sticking it to the wall (wiping electrons); Conduction–wiping feet and then touching a metal doorknob (charge transfers by direct contact); Induction–an object is exposed to another charge (Van Degraff Generator)
What kind of device can detect a charge? Electroscope
Explain static electricity and electric discharge. Charge at rest on an object; touching a conducting object (doorknob) transfers the charge (discharge).
In relation to electricity, what does it mean to be grounded? Electric current to transferred to the ground via wires.
Compare AC to DC. AC – Alternating Current – moves in 2 directions; DC - Direct Current – moves in
What is voltage and how it related to energy? Voltage is the amount of energy needed to push a charge through a wire
What unit is used to express voltage? volts
Why do batteries vary in voltage? They vary in need and size.
How does resistance factor in with insulators and conductors? Conductors have low resistance; Insulators have low resistance.
If you wanted maximum voltage what kind of wire would you want? Does temperature play a part? Thick, short wires in a cool setting is ideal!
What does Ohm’s Law state? The ratio of voltage to current is constant and referred to as Resistance.
What unit to we use to measure resistance? An Ohm - Ω
Define electric power. What unit is used to express electric power? The rate at which electrical energy is changed into other forms of energy. (Plug in a lamp and it changes into light and thermal energy).
One kilowatt (kW) equals how many watts? 1,000
Give examples of series and parallel circuits. Series – old Christmas tree lights and burglar alarms; Parallel – circuitry in a home or building
What is a fuse? Small, thin piece of metal that expands and opens a circuit to prevent the flow of charge.
How are circuit breakers used in our homes? To prevent electrical fires; a safety net.
Created by: bmp2015