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Unit 23.

Physical Therarpy (update)

QuestionAnswer
What exercises are done to maintain the health of the musculoskeletal system. Range-of-motion (ROM)
physical therapists or registered nurses may perform ROM exercises to the head and neck in only some states and health care facilities,
Lack of exercise can cause poor appetite, constipation, urinary infections, and respiratory problems.
Never force any joint beyond its ROM or cause pain while exercising a joint.
If crutches apply pressure to the axillary area what can happen? nerves and blood vessels in the arm can be damaged
A swing-through gait requires the patient to have more arm and shoulder strength.
What type of shoes should a patient wear while walking with a cane, walker, or crutches low, heels approximately 1 to 1 1/2 inches high and nonskid soles
How should a cane be properly fitted, the top of the cane handle should be level with the top of the femur at the hip joint.
A patient should be taught to lift a walker and position it so the back legs of the walker are even with the toes.
The purpose of a gait belt is to help stabilize the patient’s center of balance.
If loops are not present on a gait belt, a health care assistant should use an underhand grasp to hold on to the belt.
A physician’s order is required for a heat or cold application
Special attention must be given to infants and elderly patients when heat applications are in place, because the skin of these patients is less resistant and burns can occur rapidly.
Why should a warm water bag or ice bag always be covered to prevent injury to the skin
What type of packs should not be recommended for use on the face or head? Chemical cold or heat packs are not recommended for use on the face or head.
What is the purpose of a sitz bath? to provide warm moist heat to the perineal and rectal area.
Hydrocollator packs are gel-filled packs that are warmed in a water bath at a temperature of 150° to 170°F.
What type of water should be used in an aquamatic unit? Distilled
Why would you place an ice bag on top of a cold compress? to help maintain the temperature of the compress.
What is the purpose of a cold application? to relieve pain, reduce swelling, and control bleeding.
What must be worn at all times while applying a warm compress to a draining wound gloves
What disease process may cause patients to have limited ROM? osteoporosis
The use of a transfer belt is contraindicated (should not be used) in patients who have an ostomy, abdominal pacemaker, fractured ribs, or severe cardiac or respiratory disease.
What should be removed from an area before a heat or cold application is applied. metal objects, such as rings, bracelets, necklaces, and watches.
Range-of-motion exercises performed by patients who are able to move each joint without assistance are ____. active
Range-of-motion exercises administered by another person who moves each joint for a patient who is not able to exercise are ____. passive
During ROM exercise, each movement should be performed ____. three to five times
Movements should be slow, smooth, and gentle. Support should be provided to the parts above and below the joint being exercised. The patient should be encouraged to assist as much as possible. principlies that should be observed while performing ROM exercises
How much space should there be between a person’s armpit and the axillary bar of correctly fitted crutches? 2 inches
Which is the first gait taught to a patient who can bear weight on only one foot while walking with crutches three-point
Which crutches are recommended for patients who cannot grip the handles of other crutches or bear weight on the wrist and hands? platform crutches
The type of cane that has four legs and a handlebar the patient can grip is a ____. , walkcane, hemiwalker or quad cane
Heat applications ____. bring more oxygen and nutrients to an area to stimulate healing
An example of a moist heat application is a/an ____. warm compress
The temperature for a warm water bag should not exceed ____. 120°F
The temperature for an aquamatic pad is usually set at ____. 95° to 105°F
Which of the following devices has an automatic temperature control to maintain the water temperature during a sitz bath? sitz chair
The type of ROM that maintains joint function and movement, and helps prevent deformities, but does not strengthen muscles is ____. passive
The correct term for cold applications is ____. cryotherapy
Moving the wrist toward the little finger side Ulnar deviation
Turning the forearm and hand so the palm of the hand is down Pronation
Excessive straightening of a body part Hyperextension
Turning the head from side to side Rotation
Moving the arm out from the side of the body Abduction
Straightening the lower arm away from the upper arm Extension
Straightening the foot away from the knee Plantar flexion
Bending the lower leg up toward the upper leg Flexion
Turning the foot outward Eversion
Moving the fingers toward each other Adduction
Moving in a circle at a joint Circumduction
Bending the foot toward the knee Dorsiflexion
Turning the hand so the palm is up Supination
Moving the fingers toward the thumb side of the hand Radial deviation
Turning the foot inward Inversion
contracture, muscle weakness, joint stiffness, circulatory impairment, blood clots, pressure ulcers, mineral loss, renal calculi, poor appetite, constipation, urinary infections, respiratory problems, hypostatic pneumonia problems that can be caused by lack of movement and inactivity
right foot, left crutch, left foot, right crutch steps for a four-point gait while walking with crutches
color of skin, temperature of skin, amount of pain and bleeding, effect on circulation, condition of application (refill water or ice bags) factors that must be checked frequently when a heat or cold application has been applied
ice bag, ice collar, hypothermia blanket examples of a dry cold application
condition of skin, patient’s comments on effectiveness of treatment should be noted when a heat application is removed from a patient’s skin
In some states and health care facilities who may perform ROM exercises to the head and neck? Physical therapists or registered nurses
Gelled-filled packs that are warmed in a water bath at a temperature of 150° to 170° F. Hydrocollator packs
A tightening of a muscle relulting in a permanent extension of a joint is called a contracture
To perform ROM exercises on the shoulder, support the patient's: arm by placing one hand at the wrist and the other hand at the elbow
an artificial support tht assist a patient who needs help walking is called crutches
To fit a patient a patient for crutches, position the crutches how many inches in front of and how many inches to the side of the patient's feet 4-6 inches in front and 2-4 inches to the side.
Which side of the body should a cane be used side to provide the best support unaffected (good) side
If a patient starts to fall while ambulating, use your body to brace the patient and bend from what area to gently ease the patient to the floor hips and knees
Do not place an ice bag directly on the patient's skin
A blanket that is used to reduce high body temperatures; Hypothermia blanket
A blanket that is used to increase low body tempeatures: Hyperthermia blanket
The container of a portable sitz bath unit should be filled with water at what temperature: 105° F
If a patient has a weak side where should your position yourself when assisting with a walker: the patient's weak side
What applications cause vessels to become smaller (constricted) cold applications
What applications cause vessels to become larger (dilated) heat applications
A ROM exercise that touches each of the fingers with the tip of the thumb is called Opposition
Rolling walkers have wheels and are easily pushed by a patient who uses a walker primarily for balance
When circulation of blood is affected, and blood clots and pressure ulcers may develop it is called: circulatory impairment
Inactivity causes: mineral loss, especially of calcium from the bones.
Bones become brittle and fractures occur due to: mineral loss
What degree angle should the elbows be flexed at when a patient is fitted for crutches, a cane, or a walker? 25-30 degrees
Two things should be noted when a heat application is removed from a patient's skin? condition of skin, patient's comments on effectiveness of treatment
Examples of a dry cold applications: ice bag, ice collar, hypothermia blanket
Factors that must be checked frequently when a heat or cold application has been applied: color of skin, amount of pain and bleeding, effect on circulation, condition of application (refill water or ice bags)
What are the steps for a four-point gait while walking with crutches: right crutch, left foot, left crutch, right foot
Problems that can be cause by lack of movement and inactivity: contracture, muscle weakness, joint stiffness, circulatory impairment, blood clots, pressure ulcers, mineral loss, renal calculi,, poor appetite, constipation, urinary infections, respiratory problems, hypostatic pneumonia
Moving the lower arm away from upper arm is called extension
Created by: votec