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Week 11 Mendel

Basic genetics vocabulary

genetics the scientific study of heredity
true-breeding term used to describe organisms that if allowed to self-pollinate would produce offspring identical to themselves
trait a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
hybrid offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
gene sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and therefore determines a trait
allele one of a number of different forms of a gene
segregation the separation of alleles during gamete formation
gamete specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction; sex cell
sperm gamete produced by meiosis in the male
egg gamete produced by meiosis in the female
dominant stronger form of a trait that will always be expressed if it is present. Represented with a capital letter
recessive weaker form of a trait that will be expressed only if the dominant form is not present. Represented with a lowercase letter.
homozygous term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait
heterozygous term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
phenotype physical characteristics of an organism
genotype genetic makeup or allele letter combination of an organism
independent assortment independent segregation or separation of genes during the formation of gametes
incomplete dominance situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
probability the likelihood that a particular event will occur
Punnett Square diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
codominance situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
multiple alleles three or more alleles of the same gene
polygenic trait trait controlled by two or more genes
gene map diagram showing the relative locations of each known gene on a particular chromosome
Created by: ARhymer