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Fetal Development.

fertilization, fetal circulation, placental hormones

Normal number of chromosomes in each mature sperm Haploid
Normal number of chromosomes in nonreproductive cells Diploid
Cell division in sex cells Meiosis
Cell division in nom sex cells to allow growth and replacement of cells Mitosis
Formation of spermatozoa Spermatogenesis
Formation of ova Oogenesis
An ovum or spermatozoon Gamete
If the ovum is being fertilized by a sperm bearing a Y chromosome, the baby will be Male (XY)
If the ovum is being fertilized by a sperm bearing a X chromosome, the baby will be Female (XX)
Fertilization occurs in the outer third of the fallopian tube, near the ovary
How does fertilization occur? Occurs when sperm penetrates the ovum and unites with it, restoring total # of chromosomes to 46.
How long do sperm live after ejaculation? Up to 5 days (in the cervix)
How long does ovum live? up to 24 hours
What are the 5 functions of the amniotic fluid? 1-Maintains an even temperature. 2-Prevents the amniotic sac from adhering to the fetal skin 3-Allows symmetrical growth 4-Allows bouyancy & fetal movement 5-Acts as a cushion to protect the fetus & umbilical cord from injury
What are the 4 functions of the placenta? 1- Temporary organ for fetal respiration, nutrition, & excretion 2-Functions as an endocrine gland 3-Hormones are produced: estrogen & progesteron 4-Protects and supports fetus
What does Progesteron do? Maintains uterine lining for implantation, reduces uterine contractions to prevent spontaneous abortion, prepares gland of the breast fpr lactation, Stimulates testes to produce testosterone which helps male fetus to develop reproductive tract.
What does estrogen do? Stimulates uterine growth, increases blood flow to uterine vessels, stimulates breasts for lactation, increases skin pigmentation (mask of pregnancy), increase salivation, vascular change in the skin and mucous membrane of the nose and mouth.
Bheredtiary or genetic traits are passed from one generation to the next with in the chromosome
After six weeks gestation, fetal red blood cells are manufactured in the liver
Before 6 weeks fetal red blood cells are manufactured in the yolk sac
Which is the outer fetal membrane? Chorion
The primary function of wharton's jelly is to? allow the best blood flow through the placental vessels
Most fetal blood bypasses circulation to the lungs by way of the foramen ovale
The fetal circulatory structure that carries blood with the lowest oxygen saturation is the umbilical artery
After fertilization, the zygote grows by meiosis
The primary purpose of amniotic fluid is to protect the fetus during development
Fetal waste products are disposed of by the placenta
Inadequate progestrone is likely to result in spontaneuos abortion
Fraternal (dizygotic twins result when 2 sperm fertilize two ova
The sex of identical twins (monozygotic) is always the same
The umbilical cords shold have ____ Veins and ____ Arteries 1 vein, 2 arteries
Uterine lining after implantation that gives rise to the maternal placenta Decidua basalis
Inner fetal membrane that envelops the embryo and fetus Amnion
Outer fetal membrane that envelopes the amnion and embyo/fetus Chorion
Solid cluster of cells that is approximately the same size as the zygote Morula
Eight-cell stage of prenatal development Blastomere
Projections on the outer part of the fetal placenta that extend into the decidua baslis Chorionic villi
Prenatal development from the 2nd week to the 8th week after fertilization Embryo
Prenatal development from the ninth week after fertilization until birth Fetus
Zygote containing an inner cell mass that will develop into the embryo Blastocyte
Cell formed by union of a sperm and ovum Zygote
When does the foramen ovale close functionally and permanently? Functionally 2 hours after birth Permanently 3 month
When does the Ductus arteriosus close functionally and permanantly? Functionally 15 hours Permanenetly 3 weeks
When does the ductus venousus close permanaetly and functionally? Functionally When the cord is cut Permanently 1 week
At what gestational age does basic structure of all systems establish? 8 weeks
At what gestational age is it possible to monitor fetal status with kick counts? 20 weeks
At what gestational age do fetal eyes open? 28 weeks
At what gestational age does the tubular heart begin to beat; earliest evidence of brain and spinal cord 3 weeks
At what gestational age does the external genetalia may be determined by ultrasound 10 weeks
At what gestational age do extremities move in response to external stimuli 14 weeks
At what gestational age does the heart have all four chambers? 6 weeks
At what gestational age is fetus considered full term 38 weeks
What hormone is a "signal" that is sent to the corpus lutuem that conception has occured, continues the production of estrogen and progesterone to sustain pregnancy, peaks at 50-70(nausea), basis for pregnancy tests, and is deteched in blood and urine? hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin
What hormone causes a decreased insulin sensitivity & utilization of glucose by the mother, making more glucose available to the frtus to meet growth needs? hPL (Human Placental Lactogen)
What is
Created by: AngelaThompson