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Digestive Part 1

Lecture Unit 3

Gastrointestinal Tract (Digestive Organs) Oral cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine, Anus.
Accessory Digestive Organs Parotid salivary gland, Teeth, Tongue, Sublingual salivary gland, Submandibular salivary gland, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas.
Digestive Functions Ingestion, Mechanical digestion, Chemical digestion, Propulsion, Secretion, Absorption, Elimination of waste.
Ingestion Taking food into mouth.
Mechanical digestion Physical breakdown. Mastication=chewing. Segmentation=mixing & churning in small intestine.
Chemical digestion Molecules broken down by enzymes.
Propulsion Peristalsis: muscular contraction that moves food through GI tract.
Secretion Production & release of bile, enzymes, etc.
Absorption Nutrient transport into blood/lymph vessels
Peristalsis Form of propulsion. Involves the contraction & relaxation of the smooth muscle in the alimentary canal (AKA digestive/GI tract). It does not break up the food.
Segmentation Local contractions of smooth muscle. Involved with mechanical digestion. Mixes food with digestive juices.
Histology Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis, Serosa
Mucosa Epithelial lining closest to lumen. Secretion and absorption. Ex. Esophageal mucosa is stratified squamous. Touches food/feces.
Submucosa Vascularized and innervated.
Muscularis Inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of muscle. Segmentation and peristalsis. 2 layers of smooth muscle squishes in all directions.
Serosa Visceral peritoneum.
Oral cavity Structures: cheeks, hard palate, palatal rugae, labia, labial frenulum, vestibule. Lips consist of non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Initial location of mechanical & chemical digestion.
Salivary Glands Parotid gland & duct-25-30% of saliva production. Sublingual-3-5%. Submandibular-60-70%. Autonomic innervation. Produce 1.5L saliva/day.
Saliva Wets and binds food, cleans teeth, kills harmful microorganisms, dissolves food chemicals, enzymes begin digestion of starch.
Tooth Structure Gingiva (travels around root). Alveoli-sockets in the mandible & maxilla. Periodontal ilgaments. Root. Enamel-hardest substance in body, form cusps. Cementum-covers the root. Dentin-bulk. Pulp-contains blood vessels & nerves.
Deciduous Teeth 20 primary teeth. Fall out and are replaced. 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 molars.
Permanent Teeth 32. 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars (bicuspids), 12 molars.
Pharynx Part of respiratory & digestive systems. passageway for food, fluid, and air.
Swallowing Stage 1 is voluntary. All of other stages are involuntary.
Esophagus Muscular tube. Propels food to stomach (peristalsis). Esophageal hiatus-opening in diaphragm. Inferior esophageal or cardiac sphincter-circular muscle where esophagus and stomach meet.
Reflux Esophagitis AKA Heartburn. Acidic stomach contents regurgitate into the esophagus. Risk factors: obesity, smoking, types or quantity of food, bulimia. Symptoms: ab pain, difficulty swallowing, increased belching, bleeding.
Stomach-upper left quadrant Mucosa is simple columnar epithelium. Functions: storage of food, mechanical digestion-churn w/ gastric juice, chemical digestion-initiate protein digestion, LIMITED ABSORPTION: only meds & alcohol.
Stomach structures Cardiac sphincter (AKA lower esophageal sphincter). Cardia. Fundus. Body-majority. Greater curvature. Lesser curvature. Gastric rugae. Pyloric region. Pyloric sphincter. Label!
Histology of the stomach wall Stomach mucosa is simple columnar containing 5 different cell types.
1. Surface Mucous Cells Mucin secretion to protect stomach lining.
2. Mucous Neck Cells Acidic mucin secretion to maintain acidic conditions.
3. Parietal Cells Hydrochloric acid secretion. Gastric intrinsic factor secretion: GIF binds to B12 assisting in B12 absorption. Hyposecretion leads to pernicious anemia.
4. Chief Cells Secretion of pepsinogen, an inactive enzyme: Acid activates pepsinogen into pepsin. Pepsin digests proteins.
5. Enteroendocrine Cells Hormone secretion
Peptic Ulcer Erosion of stomach or duodenal mucosa. May be caused by ibuprofen & asprin use. Majority of cases associated with bacterium HELICOBACTER PYLORI. Perforating=eroded through entire wall. Emergency. Treatments: Antibiotics, neutralizing acid-Tums/Rolaids.
Created by: punkaloo