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Respiratory System

Lecture Unit 3

Upper Respiratory Tract Sphenoidal sinus, Frontal sinus, Nasal cavity, Pharynx. Label!
Lower Respiratory Tract Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs. Label!
Functions of the Respiratory System WORKS CLOSELY WITH CIRCULATROY SYSTEM-if either one fails, O2 starvation begins. PULMONARY VENTILATION-breathing. GAS EXCHANGE-requires capillaries. GAS CONDITIONING. SOUND PRODUCTION. OLFACTION. DEFENSE.
Nose and nasal Cavity Provides an airway for respiration. Lined w/ pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Aids w/ gas conditioning. Resonating chamber for speech and sound. Houses olfactory receptors.
How aids with gas conditioning Blood vessels and mucus help moisten and warm entering air. Nasal conchae increase tubulence to increase contact with nasal mucosa. Mucus and vibrissae (hairs) filter inhaled air.
Pharynx Throat. Connects nasal cavity and mouth to larynx and esophagus. 3 regions: Nasopharynx-pseudostratified ciliated columnar. Oropharynx-stratified squamous. Laryngopharynx-stratified squamous.
Larynx Voice box. Provides open airway. Routes air and food-Epiglottis (elastic cartilage) closes over larynx to prevent food from entering. False & true vocal cords.
False Vocal Cords AKA vestibular folds. Superior. Don't produce sound.
True Vocal Cords AKA vocal folds. Inferior, produce sound.
Trachea "C" shaped hyaline cartilage rings. posterior wall is not rigid, muscular. Carina. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Mucus producing goblet cells=mucus escalator.
Lungs Base-rests on diaphragm. Apex-superior region. Hilum. Cardiac Impression-medial side. Cardiac notch-anterior.
Hilum Region where bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves pass. Collectively, all structures passing through the hilum are termed the root o the lung.
Bronchial Tree Primary bronchi, Secondary (lobar) bronchi-2 left, 3 right. Tertiary (segmental) bronchi-8-10 left, 10 right. 9-12 more bronchi divisions. Bronchioles-microscopic.
Bronchioconstriciton In bronchioles. Caused by smooth muscle. Airways open and shrink.
Pleura Serous membrane lining the lungs. Parietal pleura, Visceral pleura, Pleural cavity=space between 2 layers. Pleural fluid-lubrication prevents friction of lungs during breathing.
Bronchioles and Alveoli Terminal bronchioles, Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, Pulmonary alveoli.
Alveoli Microscopic Bubbles. Type 1 cells. Type 2 cells. Dust cells (macrophages). Respiratory membrane. Alveolar pores. Label!
Alveoli Type 1 Cells Simple squamous epithelium. Most common.
Alveoli Type 2 Cells Secrete surfactant which reduces surface tension & prevents alveoli from collapsing. W/o surfactant lung would collapse after each breath.
Alveoli Repiratory Membrane Air-blood barrier. Where alveoli comes in contact with capillary.
Ventilation: Inspiration or Inhalation Diaphragm contracts-moves inferiorly & flattens. Increases volume of thoracic cavity. Decreases thoracic cavity pressure. Air rushes into the lungs. External intercostals, scalenes, pectoralis minor contract. Increase volume of cavity in deep inspiration.
Ventilation: Expiration or Exhalation Diaphragm passively relaxes. Moves superiorly & gets dome shaped. Decreases volume of thoracic cavity. Increases pressure. Air leaves lungs. Abdominal wall & internal intercostals contract. Decrease volume of thoracic cavity during forced exp.
External respiration Gas exchange between blood and air at the aleoli. Transport of respiratory gases. O2 diffuses from air into blood. CO2 diffuses form blood into air. In lungs. Between alveoli & capillaries.
Internal respiration Gases exchange between blood and tissue cells. Transport of respiratory gases. O2 diffuses from blood into body cells. CO2 diffuses from body cells into blood. Occurs at target tissue/cell.
Cystic Fibrosis Genetic. Affects organs that secrete. Cells cannot secrete chloride. Results in thick, sticky mucus. Treatments: antibiotics, pancreatic enzymes, caloric supplements. Too much thick mucus. Fills up organs. Alveoli fill up. Death by 20-30.
Asthma Hypersensitivity leads to inflammation & bronchoconstriction. Wheezing, coughing, excess mucous. Treatment: inhaled steroids mixed w/ brochodilators. May occur in response to pollen, smoke, mold, dust, mites, exercise, or anxiety. No room for air.
Emphysema Poorly functioning alveoli due to dilation of alveoli and loss of elastic tissue. Air trapped in alveoli. usually caused by smoking. No cure.
Pneumonia Infection of the alveoli of the lungs resulting in swelling & reduced capacity for gas exchange. May be caused by bacteria or fungi. Cough, fever, rapid breathing, & sputum.
Lung Cancer Usually caused by cigarette smoking. 3 common types: Squamous cell carcinoma-most common. Adenocarcinoma-in mucus glands. Small cell carcinoma-In bronchiole tree. Most effective treatment is complete removal of diseased lung.
Development of the respiratory system Starts as buds. 1st primary bronchial buds form, then secondary bronchial buds, then tertiary bronchi.
Created by: punkaloo