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Med Biochem Enzymes

Medical biochemistry enzymes

Hexokinase Glucose --> G-6-P Glycolysis
Phosphoglucoisomerase G-6-P <---> F-6-P Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis
Phosphofructokinase (PFK) F-6-P --> F-1,6-bisP Glycolysis
Aldolase F-1,6-bisP <----> Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate & Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis
Triose Phosphate Isomerase Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate <----> Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Dehydrogenase Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate <---> 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis
Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1,3 Bisphosphogycerate <---> 3-phosphoglycerate Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis
Pyruvate Kinase Phosphoenolpyruvate(PEP) --> Pyruvate Glycolysis
Pyruvate Carboxylase Pyruvate --> Oxaloacetate Gluconeogenesis
Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK) Oxaloacetate --> Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) Gluconeogenesis
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase F-1,6-bisP --> F-6-P Gluconeogenesis
Glucose 6-phosphatases G-6-P --> Glucose Gluconeogenesis
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (E1) TPP + Pyruvate --> Hydroxyethyl-TPP Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex
Dihydrolipoyl Transacetylase (E2 Acetyllipoamide + Coenzyme A --> Acetyl CoA Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex
Dihyrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3) FAD + e --> FADH2 + Lipoamide ---[NAD+]---> NADH + (H+) + FAD Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex
Citrate Synthase Acetyl CoA + H2O + Oxaloacetate --> Citrate (C6) TCA Cycle
Aconitase Citrate --> Isocitrate (C6) TCA Cycle
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Isocitrate --> alpha-Ketoglutorate (C5) TCA Cycle
alpha-Ketoglutorate Dehydrogenase alpha-Ketoglutorate --> Succinyl CoA (C4) TCA Cycle
Succinyl CoA Synthetase Succinyl CoA --> Succinate (C4) TCA Cycle
Succinate Dehydrogenase Succinate --> Fumarate (C4) TCA Cycle
Fumarase Fumarate --> Malate (C4 TCA Cycle
Malate Dehydrogenase Malate --> Oxaloacetate (C4) TCA Cycle
Phosphoglucomutase G-1-P <---> G-1,6-P <---> G-6-P Glycogen Synthesis
UDP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase G-1-P + UTP ---> UDP-Glucose + PPi Glycogen Synthesis
Glycogenin Glucose + AA ---> dimer w/ Glycogen Synthase ---> +8 glucose residues ---> Glycogen Synthases finishes Glycogen Synthesis
Glycogen Synthase Glycogen(n) + UDP-glucose ---> UDP + Glycogen(n+1) Glycogen Synthesis
Branching Enzyme Cuts 7 terminal units off ---> forms alpha 1-6 linkage 4 units back Glycogen Synthesis
G protein +Adenylate cyclase Glycogen Synthesis
Adenylate cyclase ATP ---> cyclic AMP Glycogen Synthesis
Cyclic AMP +PKA Glycogen Synthesis
PKA +Phosphorylase kinase, -Glycogen synthase (b) Glycogen Synthesis
Phosphorylase kinase +Phosphorylase (a) Glycogen Synthesis
Phosphorylase (a) Glycogen(n) ---> Glucose 1-phosphate + Glycogen(n-1) Glycogen Synthesis
PKA + Ca2+ ++++ Phosphorylase kinase Glycogen Synthesis
Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) -Phosphorylase kinase, -Phosphorylase (b), +Glycogen synthase Glycogen Synthesis
Insulin-sensitive protein kinase +PP1 Glycogen Synthesis
PP1 act* Glycogen synthase, inact* Phosphorylase kinase and Glycogen phosphorylase Glycogen Synthesis
PKB inact* GSK-3 Glycogen Synthesis
GSK3 inact* Glycogen synthase Glycogen Synthesis
Panreatic (intestinal) lipases TAGs ---> Fatty Acids Lipoproteins
Lipoprotein lipase cleaves TAGs (chylomicron) ---> FA + Glycerol Lipoproteins
Apoprotein B-100 tag on lipoprotein, tells it where it is from Lipoproteins
Chylomicrons fatty acid packaging ---> circulatory system ---> liver Lipoproteins
VLDL repackaging of FAs, cholesterol and esters ---> circulatory system Lipoproteins
IDL after liporprotein lipases extract FAs, VLDL --> IDL and is transported to liver Lipoproteins
LDL after liporprotein lipases extract FAs, VLDL --> LDL and is transported to liver Lipoproteins
HDL pick-up and return cholesterol to the liver Lipoproteins
ACAT packages VLDL Lipoproteins
LCAT HDL scavages cholesterol Lipoproteins
PKA HSL and perilipin Lipoproteins
Perilipin changes conformation, allows lipase to enter lipid droplet Lipoproteins
HSL enters lipid droplet and cleaves FAs from TAGs Lipoproteins
Albumin Transports FAs in circulatory system Lipoproteins
Lipase adds water to TAG ---> glycerol + FAs Lipoproteins
Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase FA + ATP <--> Acyl adenylate + PPi <--> Acyl adenylate + CoA <--> Acyl CoA + AMP FA Oxidation
Caritine acyltransferase I (CAT I) Acyl CoA + Carnitine ---> Acyl carnitine + CoA FA Oxidation
Translocase moves Acyl carnitine into Matrix and Carnitine out to cytoplasm FA Oxidation
Carnitine acyltransferase II (CAT II) Acyl carnitine + CoA ---> Acyl CoA + Carnitine FA Oxidation
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase Acyl CoA + FAD ---> trans-delta2-Enoyl CoA FA Oxidation
Enoyl-CoA hydratase trans-delta2-Enoyl CoA + H2O ---> L-3-Hydroxyacyl CoA FA Oxidation
beta-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydronase L-3-Hydroxyacyl CoA + NAD+ ---> 3- Ketoacyl CoA + NADH FA Oxidation
Acyl-CoA acetyltransferase (thiolase) 3-Keyoacyl CoA + CoA ---> Acyl CoA + Acetyl CoA FA Oxidation
delta3, delta2 -enoyl-CoA isomerase converts cis-monosaturated FA ---> trans double bond, oxidizable by regular mechanism FA Oxidation
Enoyl-CoA isomerase acts on 1st db of polyunsaturated FAs and also trans-delta3 FA Oxidation
2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase works on the 2nd+ db bonds FA Oxidation
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase Propionyl-CoA + HCO3 + ATP ---(biotin)---> D-Methylmalonyl-CoA + ADP + Pi Odd Chain FA
Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase D-Methylmalonyl-CoA ---> L-Methylmalonyl-CoA Odd Chain FA
Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase L-Methylmalonyl-CoA ---(B12)---> Succinyl-CoA Odd Chain FA
Citrate Synthase Acetyl-CoA + Oxaloacetate ---> Citrate FA Biosynthesis
Citrate transporter moves Citrate out of Mitochondria FA Biosynthesis
Citrate Lyase Citrate + CoA + ATP ---> Acetyl-CoA + ADP + Pi FA Biosynthesis
Malate Dehydrogenase Oxaloacetate + NADH + (H+) ---> Malate + NAD+ FA Biosynthesis
Malate-alpha-ketoglutarate transporter Brings Malate into the matrix FA Biosynthesis
Malic Enzyme Malate + NADP+ ---> NADPH + (H+) + CO2 + Pyruvate FA Biosynthesis
Pyruvate transporter brings Pyruvate into matrix FA Biosynthesis
Pyruvate Carboxylase Pyruvate + CO2 + ATP ---> Oxaloacetate + ADP +Pi FA Biosynthesis
Malate Dehydrogenase Malate + NAD+ ---> Oxaloacetate + NADH + (H+) FA Biosynthesis
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase Acetyl-CoA + HCO3 + ATP ---> Malonyl-CoA + ADP + Pi + (H+) FA Biosynthesis
Malonyl-CoA-ACP transacylase Malonyl-CoA + ACP ---> Malonly-ACP + CoA FA Biosynthesis
Acetyl-CoA-ACP transacylase Acetyl-CoA + ACP ---> Acetyl-ACP + CoA FA Biosynthesis
beta-Ketoacyl synthase (condensing) Acetyl-ACP + Malonyl-ACP ---> Acetoacetyl-ACP + ACP + CO2 FA Biosynthesis
beta-Ketoacyl-ACP reductase Acetoacetyl-ACP + NADPH ---> D-3-Hydroxbutyryl-ACP + NADP+ FA Biosynthesis
beta-Hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase D-3-Hydroxybutyryl-ACP ---> H2O + Crotonyl-ACP FA Biosynthesis
Fatty acyl-CoA desaturase extracts electrons from 2 diff substrates and creates a double bond (saturated fatty acyl-CoA) FA Biosynthesis
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS I) Bicarbonate + ATP ---> Carboxyphosphate + NH3 ---> Carbamic acid + ATP ---> Carbamoyl phosphate Pyrimidine Synthesis
Aspartate trans-carbamoylase (ATCase) Carbamoyl phosphate + Aspartate ---> Carbamoylaspartate ---> Dihydroorotate + NAD+ ---> Orotate Pyrimidine Synthesis
Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase Orotate + 5--phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) ---> Orotidylate Pyrimidine Synthesis
Orotidylate decarboxylase Orotidylate ---> Uridylate (UMP) Pyrimidine Synthesis
UMP kinase UMP + ATP ---> UDP + ADP Pyrimidine Synthesis
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase UDP + YTP ---> UTP + YDP Pyrimidine Synthesis
Glutamine (NH3) UTP + NH3 + ATP ---> CTP + ADP + Pi Pyrimidine Synthesis
PRPP synthetase Ribose 5-phosphate ---> PRPP Purine Synthesis
Glutamine phosphoribosyl amidotransferase PRPP + Glutamine ---> 5-Phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine Purine Synthesis
IMP dehydrogenase IMP ---> Xanthylate (XMP) + NH3 + ATP ---> Guanylate (GMP) Purine Synthesis
Adenylosuccinate synthetase IMP + GTP + Aspartate ---> Adenylsuccinate ---> Adenylate (AMP) Purine Synthesis
HMG-CoA synthase Acetoacetyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA ---> HMG-CoA + CoA Cholesterol Synthesis
HMG-CoA reductase HMG-CoA ---> Mevalonate Cholesterol Synthesis
Squalene synthase Farnesyl pyrophosphate + Farnesyl pyrophosphate ---> Squalene (C30) Cholesterol Synthesis
19 steps Lanosterol --(19 steps)--> Cholesterol Cholesterol Synthesis
ACAT Cholesterol ---> Cholesteryl ester (LDL form) Cholesterol Synthesis
Glutaminase Glumanine ---> Glutamate + NH4+ AA Synthesis
Amino transferase + (PlP) alpha-Ketoglutarate + Amino Acid ---> Glutamate + alpha-Keto acid AA Synthesis
ALT Pyruvate + Glutamate <---> Alanine (blood) + alpha-Ketoglutarate [moves amine between mucle and liver] Cahill Cycle
Glutamate dehydrogenase Glutamate <-[schiff base]--> NH4+ + alpha-Ketoglutarate Urea Cycle
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 Bicarb + 2ATPs ---> ---> Carbamoyl phosphate Urea Cycle-Mito
Ornithine transcarbamoylase Orthine +Carbamoyl phosphate ---> Citrulline Urea Cycle-Mito
Argininosuccinate synthetase Citrulline + Aspartate + 2ATPS ---> Argininosuccinate Urea Cycle-Cyto
Argininosuccinase Argininosuccinate ---> Arginine + Fumarate Urea Cycle-Cyto
Arginase Arginine ---> Ornithine + Urea Urea Cycle-Cyto
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) co-enzyme for aminotransferase = transamination Urea Cycle
Pyridoxamine phosphate co-enzyme for aminotransferase = transamination Urea Cycle
Glutamate dehydrogenase Glutamate ---> [Schiff base] ---> alpha-Ketoglutarate + NH4+ Urea Cycle
ALT (PLP) Tryptophan ---> Alanine ---> Pyruvate AA Catabolism
Serine dehydratase (PLP) Serine ---> Pyruvate AA Catabolism
AA Cysteine ---> Pyruvate AA Catabolism
Serine hydroxylmethyl transferase Threonine ---> Serine + Folate AA Catabolism
Glycine cleavage enzyme Glycine ---> NH4+ Folate AA Catabolism
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PKU) Phenylalanine ---> Tyrosine AA Catabolism
Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (Alkaptonuria) Homogentisate ---> Maleylacetoacetate AA Catabolism
Glutamate dehydrogenase a-Ketoglutarate ---> Glutamate AA Synthesis
Glutamine synthetase Glutatmate ---> Glutamine AA Synthesis
ALT Pyruvate ---> Alanine AA Synthesis
AST Oxaloacetate ---> Aspartate AA Synthesis
Glutamine(NH3) Aspartate ---> Asparagine AA Synthesis
(no enzyme) Glutamate ---> Ornithine <---> Proline <---> Ornithine <--- Arginine AA Synthesis
(no enzyme) 3-Phosphoglycerate ---> 3-Phosphohydroxyl pyruvate ---> 3-phosphoserine ---> Serine AA Synthesis
Serine hydroxylmethylase (PLP) Serine + THF ---> Glycine + 5,10-methylTHF AA Synthesis
Glycine synthase CO2 + NH4 + 5,10-MethylTHF ---> Glycine + THF AA Synthesis
SAM Met + ATP ---> SAM AA Synthesis
SAM SAM + S-Ahomocysteine ---> Homocysteine AA Synthesis
Methionine synthase (B12) Homocysteine + N5-MethylTHF ---> Methionine + THF AA Synthesis
none Homocysteine + Serine ---> ---> Cysteine + a-Ketobutyrate AA Synthesis
Tyrosine hydroxylase Tyrosine ---> L-Dopa Catacholamine Synthesis
Aromatic AA decarboxylase L-Dopa ---> Dopamine Catacholamine Synthesis
Dopamine hydroxylase Dopamine ---> NorEpi Catacholamine Synthesis
Ph-N-Methyltransferase NorEpi ---> Epi Catacholamine Synthesis
Aromatic AA decarboxylase Tryptophan ---> Serotonin Catacholamine Synthesis
Glutamate decarboxylase Glutamate ---> GABA Catacholamine Synthesis
Histadine decarboxylase Histadine ---> Histamine Catecholamine Synthesis
heme syn 1 Succinyl-CoA + Glycine ---> g-Aminolevulinate Heme Synthesis
heme syn 2 (2) g-Aminolevulinate ---> Porphobilogen Heme Synthesis
Porphobilinogen deaminase Porphobilogen ---> linear Terapyrrole + 4NH3+ Heme Synthesis
Uroporphyrinogen synthase + (uroporphyrinogen III) Uroporphyrinogen III (isoenzyme) Heme Synthesis
heme syn 5 Uroporphyrinogen III + Methyl ---> Coproporphyrinogen III + Vinyl ---> Protoporhyrin IX Heme Synthesis
Ferrochetalase Protoporhyrin IX + Fe ---> Heme Heme Synthesis
Heme oxygenase Heme ---> Biliverdin + CO- Heme Degradation
Biliverdin reductase Biliverdin ---> Bilirubin Heme Degradation
Glucuronyl-bilirubin transferase (liver) Bilirubin changed - transported to intestine - changed back to Bilirubin (bile) ---> Urobilinogen ==> Stercobilin (feces), Urobilin (kidney-urine) Heme Degradation
g-Glutanyl cysteine synthetase Glutamate + Cystein ---> g-Glu-Cys Glutathione Synthesis
Glutathione synthetase g-Glu-Cys + Glycine ---> Glutathione (GSH) Glutathione Synthesis
Glutathione peroxidase GSH ---> GSSG (glutathione dimer w/ disulfide bridge) Glutathione Synthesis
Glutathione reductase GSSG ---> GSH Glutathione Synthesis
Creatine kinase Creatine phosphate + ADP <----> ATP + Creatine Glutathione Synthesis
Ribonucleotide reductase Ribonucleoside diphosphate ---> Deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate Deoxyribonucleotide Syn
Thymidylate synthase dUMP + 5,10-MethylTHF ---> dTMP + Dihydrofolate Deoxyribonucleotide Syn
Dihydrofolate reductase Dihydrofolate + NADPH ---> THF + NADP+ Deoxyribonucleotide Syn
none THF + Serine ---> 5,10-MethylTHF + Glycine Deoxyribonucleotide Syn
Fluorodeoxyuridylate Thymidylate synthase inhibitor Deoxyribonucleotide Syn
Aminopterin & methotrexate Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor Deoxyribonucleotide Syn
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase Adenine + PRPP ---> Adenylate + PPi Purine Salvage Pathway
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) Hypoxanthine + PRPP ---> inosinate + PPi Puine Salvage Pathway
HGPRT Guanine + PRPP ---> Guanylate + PPi Purine Salvage Pathway
Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase Orotate + PRPP ---> Orotidylate Pyrimidine Salvage Pathway
Xanthine Oxidase AMP ---> IMP ---> Hypoxanthine ---> Xanthine ---> Uric acid ---> Urate Purine Breakdown
Guanase Guanine ---> Xanthine ---> Uric acid ---> Urate Purine Breakdown
Allopurinol Xanthine oxidase inhibitor = gout treatment Gout treatment
Xanthine oxidase Allopurinol ---> Alloxanthine Gout treatment
Created by: ssherwo



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