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Nclex diseases defin

disease definition

QuestionAnswer
Esophageal atresia (Congenital)a developmental factor which the upper & lower esophageal segments(LES) are separated; the upper sections ends in a blind pouch;usually a connecting fistual from one segment to trachea
Congenital pyloric stenosis may be developmental in infants, or acquired later in life, usually b/c of fibrous scar tissue; the pyloric muscle is hypertrophied & can be palpated as a hard mass in the abd
Chronic gastritis "inflammation in the stomach"; atrophy of the mucosa of stomach,with loss of secretory glands; see individuals with PUD, alcohol abuse and aging; Also autoimmune disorders are associated; loss of parietal cells leads to achlorhydia & lack of Vitamin b-12
Oral candidiasis a common fungal infection that occurs in people who have taken broad spectrum antibiotics, cancer chemotherapy, or glucocorticoids & in those who have diabetes or are immunosuppressed; may appear as red, swollen and white curdlike material on mucosa
Alzheimer's disease common form of dementia changes in progressive cortical atrophy, which leads to dilated ventricles widened of sulci,partculary in parietal & frontal lobes; deficit of ACh occurs
Huntington disease an inherited disorder that doesnt manifest until midlife: maternal inheritance delays onset longer than inheritance from the fathers Progressive atrophy of the brain occurs with degeneration of neurons; depletion of GABA, ACh
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis "Lou Gehrig's disease" amyotrophic= muscle wasting; sclerosis= degenerative hardening of lateral cortocospinal tracts, affects upper motor neurons in cerebral cortex & lower motor neurons in brainstem & spinal cord S/S spastic paralysis, hyperreflexia
Parkinsons disease dysfunction of extrapyramidal motr system occurs b/c or progressive degenerative changes in basla nuclei; decreased # of neurons secrete dopamine leading to an imbalance b/t excitation & inhibition of basal nuclei; s/s tremors, facial/ocular
Peptic Ulcer Disease "PUD" occurs prmarily proximal deodenum, also stomach antrum and lower esophagus; usually appears as cavity penetrating sub- mucosa. Ulcers can penetrate and perforate mucosa wall
Ulcerative Colitis inflammation commences in the rectum & progress thru the colon; Inflammed mucosa becmes edematous/friable and ulcerations develop. Vascular granulation tissue forms and easily bleeds;coalesce areas become denuded
Cirrhosis of the liver a condition demonstrating extensive diffuse fibrosis loss of lobular organization; regenerated hepatocyte nodules may be present;prgressive disorder leading to liver failure; Pathophysiologic effects evolve loss of liver cell functions.
Thrombus formation may form spontaneously ussually bc of stasis of blood or clot may form over an nflamed vein. Common in legs or pelvis Piece of thrombus may break aways an embolus to the heart of the lungs
Hepatitis Infection from a group of vruses that target the hepatocytes: these include: hepatitis A(HAV,HBV,HCV,HDV & HEV.Liver cells are damaged by drect action of the virus or by cell- mediated immune response ti the virus.Liver necrosis results.
Acute pancreatitis Inflammation of pancreas resulting from autodigestion of tissues; acute chronic;autodigestion follow premature activation of pancreatic proenzymes w/in the pancreas; trypsin, proteases amylase,& lipase)
Esophageal varices caused from being connected w/gastric veins & cirrhosis of the liver increaseing the pressure of blood that extends into esophageal veins,creating large distended & distorted veins near the mucosal surface of the esophageus; Complications hemmorhage
Chrons disease affects digestive tract frequently small intestines inflammation occurs (skip lesions) with affected segments clearly separated by normal tissue. Mucosal inflammation leads to ulcer that tend to coalesce to form fissures; Obstructs intrinsic factor
Cirrhosis of the liver a condition extensive diffuse fibrosis loss of lobular organization, regenerated hapatocyte nodules may be present ; progressive disorder leading to liver failure ; pathophysiologic effects evolve loss of liver cell functions
Thrombus formation may form spontaneusly usually b/c of stasis of blood or increased coagulability of blood, or clot may form ver an inflamed vein, commom legs or pelvis. Piece of thrombus may break aways, an embolus to the heart of lungs
Hepatitis Infection from a group of viruses that target the hepatocytes; these include ; hepatitis A (HAV),HBV,HCV,HDV & HEV. Liver cells are damaged by direct action of the virus or by the cell mediated immune response to virus. Liver necrosis results
Acute pancreatitis Inflammation of pancreas resulting from autoindegestion of tissues; acute or chronic; autodigestion follow premature activation of pancreatic proenzymes, w/ in the pancreas;(trypsin, proteases amylase & lipase); Massive inflammation process
Multiple sclerosis progressive neuron demyelination (brain,spinal cord & cranial nerves) affects all types of nerves throughout NS; MS is marged by remission/exacerbation until neural degeneration is irreversible
Duchennes muscular dystrophy X linked recessive(only males); metabolic defect, a deficit of dystrophin, a muscle cell membrane protein, leads to degeneratrion of necrosis cell, skeletal muscle fiberad are replaced by fat/fibrous connective tissues, muscle function is lost.
Ankylosing spondylitis vertebral joints first become inflammed;fbrosis;calcification or fusion of joints follow;the result is ankylosis or fixation of the jints. Inflammation begins in the lower back(sacral joints) progresses up the spine, causing a "poker" back
Rheumatoid Arthritis autoimmune disorder causing chronis systemic inflamatory disease, remssions/exacerbation lead to progressive joint damage. Rheumatoid factor is an antibody against I-Gh that s present in blood. Mobility is impaired
Gout common in men (>40 yr)joint disease; result from deposits of uric acid( waste) & urate crystals in the joint developing acute inflammatory response. affects single joints developing acute inflammatory respons & articular cartilidge is damaged
cholelithiasis the formation of gallstones(solid masses/calculi bile formation); larger stones obstruct bile flow causing pain; inflammation/infection in the billiary may provide exacerbate stone formation.
Created by: tko27girl
 

 



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