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Urinary System

Urinary System:Anatomy and Physiology 2

What is excretion? removal of metabolic wastes from the body
What is the function of the kidneys? regulate homeostasis
What are the 6 ways the kidneys regulate homeostasis? removal of salts and nitrogenous wastes , maintain normal H20 and electrolyte concentration, regulate pH of body fluids, secrete the hormone erythropoietin which controls red blood cell production, secrete the hormone renin to regulate BP, produce urine
What are the organs of the urinary system? kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
What are the accessory excretroy organs? skin (integumentary), lungs (respiratory), and large intestine (digestive)
What are some examples of nitrogenous wastes? urea, creatine, uric acid
Which renal vein is shorter than the other? right renal vein
What is the location of the kidneys? on lateral to the vertebral column, posterior to the abdominal wall, retroperitoneal, at the level of the T12-L3,
Which kidney is lower than the other? right kidney is lower beause of location of liver exerting weight onto it
How much do kidneys weigh? 160 g each (30 g=1 oz)
What are the tissue coverings of the kidneys? renal fascia, renal fat pad, renal capsule
What is the renal fascia for? connective tissue for attahment to the abdominal wall
What is the purpose of the renal fat bad? serves as a cushion
What is the purspose for the renal capsule? protects the kidneys from infection
What is the size of the kidney? 10cm x 5cm x 4 cm or 3-4 inches in length, 2.5 inches side to side or 1.5 inche flat surface
What is the shape of the kidney? bean-shaped, convex laterally, concave medially
Where is the hilum of the kidney? medial, indented side; it is the doorway to each kidney
What is the relationship of the kidney to the adrenal glands? the adrenal glands sit on top of each kidney
What is hydronephrosis? the kidneys lose fat support and become enlarged by accumulating H2O
What structures are located in the inner renal medulla? renal pyraminds, renal papilla, renal columns
What structures are located in the renal sinus? Minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis
Where does each renal artery extend directly from? the aorta
Where does each renal vein empty directly into? inferior vena cava
What is the total cardiac output (volume of blood that is pumped from the ventricles) in the kidneys of a person at rest? 20-25% (1 out of 5 L)
What is the amount of CO of a person that is exercising? 5%
Trace blood from aorta to inferior vena cava. Aorta, renal artery, segmental (lobar) artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus,efferent arteriole,peritubular capillaries (vasa recta),interlobular vein, arcuate vein, interlobar vein, renal vein,IVC
Where do he right and left renal arteries branch from? Abdominal aorta
What are the three major organs that pass through the diaphragm? aorta, esophagus, IVC
Which contains more metabolic impurities, the renal artery or renal veins? renal artery
What is the nephron? it is the filtering functional unit of the kidney
how many nephrons are in each kidney? over a million
What are the structural features of the nephron? it is a ball shaped structure, highly coiled and contains the renal corpuscle and renal tubule
What does the renal corpuscle consist of? glomerulus capillaries which is a ball of capillary network and a fenestrated endothelium and also the Bowman's capsule which is a double layered membrane (visceral layer is the podocytes and the parietal layer is the capsule)
What force sends plasma from out of glomerular capillary into capsular space? the force of blood pressure
When does glomerular filtrate turn into urine? at the minor calyx
What does the renal tuble consist of? proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), the loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule (DCT), and the collecting duct
Where does the collecting duct empty into? the minor calyx
What is the filtration membrane? the membrane that forms a barrier between the blood and filtrate
What is the composition of the filtration membrane? formed by the wall of the glomerulus and the podocytes (cells that form filtration slits)
Explain the flow of blood through the nephron interlobular artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillary, interlobular vein, arcuate vein, renal vein, inferior vena cava
Which arteriole gives rise to the peritubular capillary system which surrounds the renal tubule? efferent arteriole
What is the first step of urine formation? Glomerular filtration
What is glomerular filtration? Creates a plasmalike filtrate of the blood which occurs in the capsule.
Where does glomerular filtration occur? the Bowman's Capsule (Renal Corpuscle)
What is the second step of urine formation? Tubular Reabsorpotion
What is tubular reabsorption? removes useful solutes from the filtrate and returns them to the blood
Where does tubular reabsorption occur? proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
What is the third step in urine formation? Tubular secretion
What is tubular secretion? removes additional wastes from the blood and adds them to the filtrate
What is the fourth step of urine formation? Water conservation
What is water conservation? removes water from the urine and returns it to the blood and concentrates wastes
Where does water conservation occur? Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
What are the two hormones involved in Nephron function? ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)- water retention and occurs in the DCT and aldosterone (sodium absorption
What is in the filtrate? mostly water, metabolic wastes (urea, ammonia, uric acid), nutrients (glucose, vitamins, amino acids) and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride
How much of the filtrate is absorbed back into circulating blood in the kidneys? 99%
What is filtration pressure? the force required to push plasma from the glomerulus into the capsule
Hydrostatic pressure is... blood pressure inside the glomerular capillaries. This is an outward driving force
Osmotic pressure of the plasma... solutes in plasma draw water outside the glomerulus (inward force)
Hydrostatic pressure in the Bowman's capsule.... as fluid accumulates in the capsule, it resists free flow of plasma from the glomerulus (inward force)
Net filtration pressure = A(Hydrostatic pressure) - (B(osmotic pressure) - C(capsular presure)
Postive net filtration pressure producing filtrate
Negative net filtration pressure renal failure
Glomerular filtration rate filtrate secreted into capsular spaes by both kidneys in one minute (125 mL)
What are the factors controlling filtration rate? filtration pressure, diameters of the afferent or efferent arterioles, changes in plasma osomtic pressure in the glomerulus, blood flow through the glomerulus, hydrostatic pressure in the Bowman's capsule
Renal auto-regulation maintenance of normal filtration by the nephron which is the function of the cells of the JG apparatus( JG cells)
What produces the chemical renin? JG cells
Renin controls what? systemic blood pressure
How much cardiac ouput do the kidneys receive at rest? about 20%
What is the cardiac output during kidneys? about 5-10%
What is the result of sympathetic nerves control of renal blood flow? reduced filtration by nephrons
Tubular reabsorption substances are selectively reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate
What is the peritubular capillary adapted for? reabsorption
Where does most reabsorption occur? proximal tubule
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by... active transport
Water is reabsorbed... osmosis (80% of filtrate)
The presence of what horone increases water reabsorption... ADH
Proteins are reabsorbed by... pinocytosis
Substances that remain in the filtrate... are concentrated as water is reabsorbed
Sodium ions... are reabsorbed by active transport
Where does chemical control of water and sodium reabsorption occur? region of the DCT and collecting duct
Where is ADH located and formed? posterior pituitary gland causes the permeability of the distal tubule and collection ducts to increase, and thus promotes the reabsorption of water
Aldosterone a hormone released by the adrenal gland further increases sodium and water absorption in the distal tubule.
What is the third step of urine formation? Tubular secretion
What does tubular secretion serve to remove? Various organic compounds (ammonia) and hydrogen ions to maintain acid-base balance
What is the fourth step of urine formation? Water Conservation
What is the end product of the four steps? urine
What happends during water conservation? By Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion from the hypothalamus, incureases reabsorption of water from the renal tubule, and decreases urine volume
Urea excretion urea is a by-product of amino acid metabolism, t is reabsorbed passively by diffusion; about 50% of the urea is excreted in urine.
Uric acid excretion results from the metabolism of nucleic acids (most is reabsorbed by active transport, some is secreted into the renal tubule.)
Physical composition of urine color and transparency, odor, pH, specific gravity
Chemical composition of urine 95% water, remaining 5% is solutes like urea, electrolytes, uric acid, creatinine
Factors involved in urine output fluid intake environmental temperature humidity emotional status respiration rate body temperature
Ureters muscular tubes that extend from each kidney to the urinary bladder; wall is mucous, muscular, and fibrous layers; composed of transitional epithelium; peristaltic waves in the ureter force urine to the bladder
Urinary bladder wall structure mucosa: transitional epithelium muscular layer: smooth muscle fibers in the wall of the bladder form the detrusor muscle (to expel substances from the body) A portion of the detrusor muscle forms an internal urethral sphincter
Trigone a triangle in the floor of the bladder; the opening from the two ureters and the urethra form a triangle
The urinary bladder stores.... urine
The urinary bladder stores urine and forces it into the .... urethra
micturation process by which urine is expelled
baroreceptors bladder stretch receptors
Micturation reflex urge to urinate
What is the stimulus of the micturation reflex? the presence of about 200 mL of urine in the bladder
How are stretch receptors stimulated? by distension (stretching)
micturation reflex center parasympathetic motor impulses to the detrusor muscle causes the contraction of the bladder
internal urethral sphincter is forced to open
external urethral sphincter is under voluntary control
Created by: lyds