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Lymphatic & Immune

Lecture Unit 2

Blood Plasma Becomes interstitial fluid when leaked out of capillaries. Becomes lymph when picked up by lymphatic vessels. Again becomes blood plasma when dumped back into veins.
Lymphatic System Most of the fluid is reabsorbed at the venous end, but ~3L/day is not. Lymphatic sys returns this fluid to the blood stream.
Functions of the Lymphatic System Returns leaked plasma to the bloodstream. Transport dietary lipids-diluted in lymph. Lymphatic organs house lymphocytes. Generates an immune response & increases the lymphocyte population.
Lymph Vessels Return lymph to venous bloodstream. Order: Lymphatic capillaries pick up interstitial fluid. Lymphatic Vessels. Lymphatic trunks. Lymphatic ducts-empty lymph back into venous circulation.
Lymph Capillaries Close-ended tubes. Overlapping endothelial cells from 1-way flaps. Occur most everywhere blood capillaries occur-absent from red bone marrow, CNS, & avascular tissues.
Lacteals Special types of lymphatic capillaries, pick up interstitial fluid, dietary lipids, & lipid-soluble vitamins. GI lymph=CHYLE (Lymph w/ fat in it).
Lymphatic Vessels Receive lymph from capillaries. Resemble small veins-3 tunics, valves. Valves prevent backflow in the low pressure system. 2 types: afferent-flow towards lymph nodes. efferent-flow away from lymph nodes. cleaner than afferent vessels.
Lymphatic Trunks Drain lymph from major body regions.
Lymphatic Ducts Return lymph to cardiovascular sys. Empty at the junction of the internal jugular & subclavian veins. Thoracic-drains upper left quadrant & lower quadrants. Right lymphatic-drains upper right quadrant.
Lymphatic Nodules Oval clusters of lymphatic tissue NOT surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. Contain some lymphatic cells-proliferating B-lymphocytes & some macrophages. Filter & attack antigens. Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT). Tonsils
Tonsils Protect the pharynx from infection. Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids). Palatine tonsils. Lingual tonsils. Tubal tonsils.
Tonsillitis & Tonsillectomy Tonsils may be infected by viruses or bacteria. Symptoms: Fever, chills, sore throat, difficulty swallowing. Tonsillectomies are advised only if the person has had 6-7 infections in 1 year or 2-3 per year for several years.
Lymphatic Organs Thymus, Lymph Nodes, & Spleen. Consist of Lymphatic cells & extracellular matrix-Form layers w/ inner medulla & outer cortex. Completely surrounded by a connective tissue capsule!
Thymus Large in infants & young children. After puberty it begins to shrink. Each lobe has cortex & medulla. They help T-cells mature.
Lymph Nodes Filter antigens form lymph & initiate immune response. Cortex-lymphocytes, dendritic cells. Medulla-lymphocytes, macrophages. Afferent & efferent lymphatic vessels. Clusters-axillary, inguinal, cervical. Know cisterna chyli.
Spleen Largest lymphatic organ. Upper left quadrant of abdomen. White pulp contains lymphatic cells. Initiates immune response when antigens are found. Red pulp functions as a blood reservoir. Macrophages phagocytose bacteria & carry out hemolysis.
Lymphedema Edema due to lymph node obstruction. Lymphatic filariasis: worms lodge in nodes. Surgical removal of nodes. Malignant tumors of nodes. Radiation causing scar tissue. Extreme cases-elephantiasis-common in southeast asia/africa. NOT operable/curable.
Lymphatic cells LYMPHCYTES-most abundant cell type. B-lymphcytes, T-lymphocytes, & Natural Killer cells. Migrate through lymphatic sys, bind antigens. MACROPHAGES-monocytes that have migrated from bloodstream. Phagocytosis.
Lymphopoiesis All born in red bone marrow. T-cells mature in thymus. B-cells mature in bone marrow.
T lymphocytes Two main types: 1. Helper (CD4) 2. Cytotoxic (CD8). Other types: Memory, Suppressor.
Helper T lymphocytes (CD4) Initiate & oversee immune response. Present antigens to other cells. Secrete cytokines-Chemical signals that bind to & activate other cells. Targeted by AIDS. Boss of the immune system.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8) Kill by either secreting substances that break down the invading cell membrane or by triggering cell death. Kill bad guys by releasing poisons.
Memory T lymphocytes Patrol body after attack.
Suppressor T lymphocytes Turn off immune response. Everyone would get autoimmune diseases w/o these.
B Lymphocytes Respond to 1 antigen by producing immunoglobulins (antibodies). Cannot be activated until a Helper T-lymphocyte presents it w/ an antigen. Once activated create Plasma cells ( create antibodies), & memory B-lymphocytes.
Antibodies Bind to antigens. Tag targets for destruction by T-cells.
Immunity (B Lymphocytes) Secondary immune response is stronger & faster than primary response.
NK (Natural Killer) Cells NK cells can respond to multipe antigens. (Each B & T cell can only respond to a single antigen). NK cells can kill a wide variety of infected cells and some cancerous cells.
Lymphoma Malignant neoplasm. Swollen lymph nodes in groin, cervical, axillary region. Hodgkin's lymphoma-presence of Reed-Sternberg cell. If caught early prognosis is good. AIDS is a risk factor. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Bad-access to the whole body through lymph.
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Passed through intimate contact w/ infected body fluids. Targets helper T-cells which oversee the body's immune response.
AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. An HIV infection is diagnosed as AIDS when helper T-cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3. Drug cocktail can stop disease from progressing but must be taken for life.
Created by: punkaloo