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Exam 2 about Fungus

Characteristics of fungi: Achlorophylous,filamentous,reproduce via spores, and obtain nutrients though absorption processes
What are the divisions of fungi? Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota
Rusts are part of which fungal division? Basidomycota
Chestnut Blight Cypronectria parasitica; Ascomycota (sexually and asexually); caused cankers; from Asia;changed the ecosystem; Control by Fungal hypovirulence or breeding hybrids
Dutch Elm Ophiostoma ulmi; Chinese brought the ascomycete fungus pathogen and a beetle during WWI; millions of European Elms died; beetles have mycangium; brought to the US by importing lumber; Control by pruning disease trees, insecticides, or fungicides
White pine blister rust introduced to US from Asia; control by hybrids
Nectria canker of beech introduced from Europe; control scale and trees are less damaged
Tar spot of Norway maple introduced from Europe; control by reducing density of Norway maple
Dogwood anthracnose introduced from Asia; control is taken care of by natural resistance
Sudden oak death Phytophthora ramorum (oomycete); California and Europe; control by burning infected areas and quarantine; bad for nurseries
Yeasts unicellular fungi; haploid; can be short filaments; ascomycetes; reproduce by budding (4 spores); mother cells; ferment sugars
Yeast living conditions lives everywhere; can grow in sugar and 20% alcohol
Saccharomyces cerevisiae king of yeast; eukaryote; ascomycete; unicellular & produces pseudohyphae; divides by budding
Budding results in 2 cells of unequal size, a mother and a daughter cell; mother dies after 30-40 divisions
Schizosaccharomyces pombe the fission yeast; cellular biology; used in some fermentations
Kluyveromyces lactis the milk yeast; lactose fermentation to lactic acid
Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and Saccharomyces bayanus related to S. cerevisiae; brewing and wine making
Pichia and Yarrovia species Ascomycetes associated with insect or found in decaying plant material; can produce methane from lipids
Candida albicans yeast; lacks sexual cycle; human pathogen
dimorphic characteristic of having two growth forms (example: Ascomycetes like Aspergillus or Neurospora, or Basidiomycetes like Cryptococcus)
black yeasts most are Basidiomycetes, some Ascomycetes; known as human pathogens or found in extreme environments
Fermentation microbial conversion of carbohydrates to alcohol or acids
Three types of fermentation Alcohol (1 glucose → 2 ethanol + 2 carbon dioxide ), Lactic acid (1 glucose → 2 lactic acid OR 1 lactose + 1 water → 4 lactate), and Heterolactic acid (1 glucose → 1 lactate + 1 ethanol + 1 CO2)
Reasons for fermentation recreation, freservation, and flavor
Zymomonas mobilis a bacterium that will ferment to ethanol
Pulque wine from agave plant sap; Mexico
Flower wines Korean make Dugyeonju 21% alcohol from azalea petals; sugar needs to be added
Kombucha fermented tea; needs a mother culture
Alcohol percents of fermented beverages Fruit wines – 5% to 16%; Wine (grape) – 5% to 16%; Beer 5-6%, up to 20%; Rice (sake and other kinds) 3% to 20%; Mead (made with grain mash) 8% to 18%; Milk 1-4%
Fruit wines balanced quantities of sugar, acid, tannin to naturally produce a stable, palatable wine; most popular are pear and apple
Grape wine Vitis vinifera for finest wine from Europe; balance between fruit acids and sugars
French paradox protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine; polyphenols, esp. resveratrol: important anti-oxidant compounds found in red wine
Banana wine Mbege; from Tanzania; banana and finger millet
Kilju a Finnish sugar/water wine; low-quality
Pruno Prison wine
beer grain fermentation; 3rd most popular drink; most common is barley or rice; grain must be malted first;
malting process in which the grains are made to germinate by soaking then dried; grain's starches into sugars
brewer's yeast S. cerevisiae carlsbergenis (now known as Saccharomyces pastorianus)
Top-fermenting yeast higher temperatures; produces eastersand flavors and aromas
Bottom-fermenting yeast (the most common beers); cooler conditions ; "crisper" tasting beer
Sake rice wine; more like beer; double fermentation
Tesgüino corn beer from Mexico
Mead honey wine; honey, water, and grain mash; 8-18%
Fermented milk (Kefir) milk with kefir grains; bacteria and yeast in proteins, lipids, and sugars; fermentation of the lactose is sour
Fermented milk (Kumis) mare's milk; mother culture; higher alcohol content thant kefir
Blaand Scottish; fermented milk from whey
Rennet a natural complex of enzymes produced in any mammalian stomach to digest the mother's milk, and is often used in the production of cheese. There are both natural and artificial sources of rennet. And some fungal sources such as a Mucor species
Created by: elainem