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Emergency MR

McGraw-Hill Emergency Medical Responder 2nd Edition Ch.27

QuestionAnswer
Soft tissues The layers of the skin and the fat and muscle beneath them.
Helps regulate body temperature, Senses heat, cold, touch, pressure, and pain, Helps maintain fluid balance, and Protects underlying tissues from injury. Skin
Wound An injury to the soft tissues.
Occurs when the soft tissues under the skin are damaged but the surface of the skin is not broken. Closed wound
Open wound Occurs when the skin surface is broken.
An extreme loss of blood from a blood vessel (major bleeding). Hemorrhage
Hemophilia A disorder in which the blood does not clot normally.
Bleeding that spurts with each heartbeat, difficult to control (bright red). Arterial bleeding
Venous bleeding Bleeding that flows steadily, normally easier to control because it is under less pressure(dark red, maroon).
Bleeding where blood oozes slowly, dark red in color, often clots and stops by itself whithin a few minutes because it is under very low pressure. Capillary bleeding
External bleeding Bleeding that you can see, blood flows through an open wound, such as a cut, scrape, or puncture.
Methods used to control external bleeding Applying direct pressure to the wound, Applying a splint, Applying a tourniquet (if bleeding is severe and cannot be controlled with direct pressure).
Direct pressure Firm force applied to a bleeding site with gloved hands or bandages to control bleeding.
Absorbent material placed directly over a wound. Dressing
Pressure bandage Material, such as roller gauze, that is applied snugly to create pressure on a wound and hold a dressing in place over it.
A broken bone that penetrates the skin. Compound fracture
Splint A device used to limit the movement of an injured arm or leg and reduce bleeding and discomfort.
An air splint that acts as a pressure bandage, applying even pressure to the entire arm or leg Pressure splint
Pneumatic antishock garment (PASG) A device that can be used as a pressure splint to help control suspected severe bleeding in the abdomen or pelvis that is accompanied by hypotension.
A tight bandage that surrounds an arm or a leg and is used to stop the flow of blood in the extremity. Tourniquet
Internal bleeding Bleeding that occurs inside body tissues and cavities.
A soft tissue injury that results when the body is struck by a blunt object; there is no break in the skin, but the tissues and vessels beneath the skin surface are crushed or ruptured. Closed soft tissue injury
Ecchymosis A bluish discoloration caused by leakage of blood into the skin or mucous membrane.
A localized collection of blood beneath the skin caused by a tear in a blood vessel. Hematoma
Crush injury Trauma caused by a compressing force applied to the body (compression injury).
A soft tissue injury in which a break occurs in the skin. Open soft tissue injury
Abrasion Occurs when the outermost layer of skin is damaged by rubbing or scraping.
A cut or tear in the skin of any length, shape, and depth. Laceration
Puncture wound Occurs when the skin is pierced with a sharp, pointed object.
An object that remains embedded in an open wound Impaled object
Avulsion An injury in which a piece of skin or tissue is torn loose or pulled completely off.
The separation of a body part from the rest of the body. Amputation
Abrasion, Laceration, Penetration, puncture wound, Avulsion, Open crush injury, and Amputation Types of open wounds
Penetrating chest injury A break in the skin over the chest wall.
Occurs when an organ sticks out through an open wound. Evisceration
Sucking chest wound A chest injury in which air moves into the pleural cavity through an open chest wound, creating a sucking or gurgling sound when air escapes from the wound when the patient breaths in.
The entry of air into the circulation through a blood vessel that is torn and exposed to the air. Air embolism
Subcutaneous emphysema Air trapped beneath the skin; a crackling sensation under the fingers that suggests laceration of a lung and the leakage of air into the pleural space.
A burn that affects only the epidermis Superficial burn (first-degree burn)
Partial-thickness burn (second-degree burn) A burn that involves the epidermis and dermis.
A burn in which the epidermis and dermis are destroyed; the burn may also involve subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and bone. Full-thickness burn (third-degree burn)
Cercumferential burn Swelling from a burn that encircles an extremity.
Facial burns, Soot in the nose or mouth, Singed facial or nasal hair, Swelling of the lips or the inside of the mouth, Coughing, An inability to swallow secretions, and A hoarse voice. Signs and symptoms of possible inhalation injury.
Bandage Material used to secure a dressing in place.
Created by: Jimmyc