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Earth Movement

Plates of the Earth

QuestionAnswer
cast fossil a fossil that forms when a mold is filled in with minerals deposited by water – a three dimensional replica of the organism.
continent one of the seven large masses of earth (Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe, North America, South America, and Antarctica).
continental crust the layer of crust that contains the continents.
continental drift the theory that the continents have moved vast distances around the earth over millions of years to reach their present location.
convection the continuous cycle of heating and rising, cooling and sinking.
convection currents the circular path of a gas or liquid as it is heated and rises, spreads out, and then cools and sinks.
core the earth’s innermost layer.
crust the thin, rocky, outermost layer of the earth.
earthquake vibrations in the earth’s crust caused by the sudden release of energy due to shifting rocks along a fault.
erupt to break through; to force out suddenly and violently.
fault a break or crack in the earth’s crust where two plates slide past each other.
fossil the remains of an organism that lived long ago, found preserved in rock preserved in rock.
geology the study of earth and its history.
glacier a huge, slow-moving mass of ice.
inner core the innermost layer of the earth which is made of solid metals (high temperatures and high pressure).
island land mass surrounded by water.
lava magma that comes out of a volcano.
lithosphere consists of the crust and upper-part of the mantle that is separated into the tectonic plates.
magma the melted rock that makes up the mantle.
mantle the thick fluid layer of earth on which the crust floats.
model a smaller or larger version of an object used to represent the actual object.
mold fossil an imprint left in a rock after the remains of an organism have disintegrated.
ocean floor the surface of the earth’s crust beneath the ocean.
mid-ocean ridge a mountain range on the ocean floor.
ocean-floor spreading the process by which hot magma from the mantle wells up in the boundary between two oceanic plates as they move away from each other – it results in the creation of new crust.
oceanic crust the layer of crust beneath the oceans.
Pangaea the name for the super-continent that scientists believe existed about 200 million years ago, in which all the present continents were once joined.
plate a section of the earth’s crust.
Ring of Fire a region of the earth in which many volcanoes and earthquakes occur (encircling the Pacific).
subduction the process in which two plates collide and the edge of the denser plate sinks beneath the edge of the less dense plate, then melting back into the mantle.
trench a deep, narrow valley in the ocean floor where subduction takes place.
vibrations a rapid back and forth movements.
volcano an opening in the earth’s crust through which melted rock reaches the earth’s surface.
Created by: ccdpittsford