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Skin

Skin Assessment

QuestionAnswer
Skin Assessment: Flushing; What is the associated disoder? Increased permeability of the peripheral capillaries, as with fever. *Flushing may be normal with exercise.
Skin Assessment: Pallor; What is the associated disorder? Decreased arterial blood flow of arterial insufficiency.
Skin Assessment: Rubor and brawny skin; What is the associated disorder? Decreased venous return in venous insufficiency. *Skin is cool or cold over areas of decreased circulation.
Skin Assessment: Cyanosis; What is the associated disorder? Circumoral cyanosis in congestive heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Peripheral cyanosis in areas of impaired circulation w/oxygenated blood. *Cyanosis in dark-skinned pts can be assessed in buccal mucosa or conjunctivae.
Nail Assessment: Fingernail clubbing; What is the associated disorder? Disease states with prolonged hypoxia (i.e. emphysema)
Assessment: Thinning of the skin, hair, and nails and hair loss; What is the associated disorder? Nutritional deficiencies, inadequate absorption of vitamins A, B6 (riboflavin), and C
Assessment: Jaundice (yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera, or buccal mucosa); What is the associated disorder? Liver disease
Assessment: Pigmented macules; What is the associated disorder? Peutz-Jeghers' disease. *Pigmented areas may be onhands, lips, or buccal mucosa.
Assessment: Facial flushing; What is the associated disorder? Gastrointestinal cancers
Assessment: Uremic frost; What is the associated disorder? Marked renal failure. *Results from precipitation of renal urea and nitrogen waste products through sweat onto skin.
Assessment: Hirsutism; What is the associated disorder? Polycystic ovarian syndrome. *Affected women show male-pattern hair distribution, usually on face, chest, abdomen, or genital area.
Assessment: Thick, coarse hair, dry skin, and cool skin temp.; What is the associated disorder? Hypothyroidism
Assessment: Smooth skin, thin, silky hair, and brittle nails; What is the associated disorder? Hyperthyroidism
Assessment: Excessive hair growth or thinning - development of or worsening of acne; What is the associated disorder? Androgen disorders
Assessment: Striae; What is the associated disorder? Cushing's syndrome
Assessment: Hyperpigmentation of skin and mucous membranes - nevi; What is the associated disorder? Addison's disease
Assessment: Flushing; What is the associated disorder? Pheochromocytoma
Assessment: Thickened skin; What is the associated disorder? Pituitary tumor
Assessment: Decreased sweating (hypohidrosis), frequent cutaneous yeast infections, and hair loss on distal extremeties; What is the associated disorder? Diabetes mellitus
Assessment: Acanthosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation); What is the associated disorder? Peripheral neuropathy in diabetes. *Decreased sensation of any body area increases risk of injury, including burns and pressure ulcers.
Assessment: Cafe au lait macules; What is the associated disorder? Neurofibromatosis
Assessment: Photosensitivity, malar rash (red macular lesions on forehead, cheeks, & chin - like a butterfly), coin-shaped lesions on trunk & extremities, and apthous ulcers on buccal mucosa; What is the associated disorder? Systemic lupus erythematosus
Assessment: Annular erythema; What is the associated disease? Sjorgen's syndrome
Assessment: Pallor of fingers and toes in response to cold; What is the associated disease? Raynaud's phenomenon
Assessment: Erythema and increased temp. over a joint; What is the associated disease? Sepsis or acute inflammation of the joint
Assessment: Generalized pallor; What is the associated disease? Anemia
Assessment: Pruritis; What is the associated disorder? Polycythemia, mastocytosis, lymphoma, or leukemia
Assessment: Spooning of nails; What is the associated disorder? Iron deficiency states
Assessment: Patchy alopecia on the scalp or body, as well as missing or sparse eyelashes and eyebrows; What is the associated disorder? Trichotillomania (compulsive hair pulling?
Assessment: Small linear cuts on patient's arms, legs, or anterior torso; What is the associated disorder? "Cutting:. *This self-injury coping method occurs in patients w/borderline personality disorder, depression, and other psychiatric states.
Macule Flat, circumscribed, discolored, <1 cm diameter; Ex = freckles, tattoo, stork bite
Patch Flat, circumscribed, discolored, >1 cm diameter; Ex = vitiligo, melasma, tinea versicolor
Papule Raised, defined, any color, <1 cm diameter; Ex = wart, insect bite, molluscum contagiosum
Plaque Raised, defined, any color, >1 cm diameter; Ex = psoriasis, lichen sclerosus
Wheal Raised, flesh-colored or red edematous papules or plaquesm vary in size and shape; Ex = urticaria
Nodule Solid, palpable >1 cm diameter, often w/some depth; Ex = basal cell carcinoma
Tumor Large nodule; Ex = large nevus, basal cell carcinoma, lipoma
Bulla Fluid-filled, >1 cm diameter; Ex = second-degree burns, bullous impetigo
Pustule Purulent, fluid-filled, raised of any size; Ex = pustular acne, folliculitis
Cyst Distinct and walled-off, containing fluid or semi-solid material, varied in size; Ex = epidermal cysts, cystic acne
Vesicle Fluid-filled, <1 cm diameter; Ex = Herpes simplex, chicken pox
Created by: calixtra