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Animal Science Words

My Animal Science Words

QuestionAnswer
Nutrient Any food component the body requires to support life includes life including water, carbohydrates, protein, fats, minerals and vitamins
Malnutrition Abnormal nutrition; caused by a diet that contains too much or too little of one or more essential nutrients
Mouth Teeth grasps, tear and grind food into small pieces, tongue position food for swallowing
Esophagus Transport food from mouth to stomach
Stomach Provides food storage
Stomach Intestine Mixes ingested foods with bile and digestive enzymes
Large Intestine Absorbs water and electrolytes, recycling them for use within the body.
Rectum External openings at the end of digestive tract.
Salivary Glands Secrete saliva to moisten and lubricate foods play role in evaporative cooling in dogs and cats
Liver Produces bile to help digest foods. Stores glucose as glycogen.
Pancreas Produces insulin and gluagon to help control glugagon metabolism
Energy ability to do work; all body activities requires energy and all needs are meet by consuming food; which consuming food, which contains in chemical form, energy content of food is expressed kilo calories
Metabolism all of the complex, integrated chemical and physical processes that makes life possible.
Digestibility proportion of nutrients in food available for absorption from the gastrointestinal tract
Bioavailability amount of nutrient absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in a form that the body can use.
As Fed Basics Concentration of nutrients in food in the form consumed by the animal; includes moisture content of the food
Dry Method Basics method of expressing a food nutrient content on a moisture free basics
Energy Basis concentration of nutrients in food expressed per unit of energy usually per 100 kilocalories.
Metabolizable Energy Amount of energy in a food available for the body use measured in calories or kilocalories
Kilocalories 1000 calories; one calorie is the energy needed to raise temperature of 1g water from 14.5 to 15.5
Solvant liquid in which another substance is dissolved to form a solution.
Hydrolysis process by which complex materials are broken down into simpler ones by adding water; one of the most basic and prevent life processes
Maintenance the amount and quaility of the diet required to maintain an adult animal without providing additional nutrients for production, reproduction and weight gain
Gross energy total amount of potential energy in food, not completely used by the animal because some energy loses occurs during digestion and expelled from urine and feces
Body Condition Score Determination of an relative proportion of muscle to fat using visual assessment and palpation
Lean Body Mass Fat Free mass of the body; that part of the body including its components except fats
Energy Density Number of calories provided by a given weight or volume of pet food
Enzymes Any protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body acting as a catalyst
Digestion act or process of converting food into chemical compounds that can be absorbed into the bloodstream and used by the blood tissues
Digest physical or enzymatic breakdown of food into simpler compounds that can be absorbed and incorporated by the body
Monaccharides simple surgars
Metabolism all the complex; interrelated chemicals and physical processes that makes life possible; includes anabolism, the process by which organic substances are build and maintained
Nonessential Amino Acids amino acids synthesized in the body body in sufficient amounts so that they do not need to be obtained from food.
Glycoproteins proteins joined to carbohydrates; function as cell membrane bound enzymes and receptors
Glycolipids lipids that contains carbohydrates groups such as galactose and glucose
Lactase Encyme in the intestine mucosa that spits lactose into glucose and galactose
Essential Diatary Nutrients Nutrients that the body cannot synthesize at a sufficient rate to meet body needs and must be supplied by the diet
Metabolically Essential required by the body for normal function
Glucconeogenesis Production of glucose from amino acids and glycerol; occurs in the liver
Dipeptides compounds consisting of amino acids connected by a peptide bond
Tripepties compounds containing three amino acids linked by peptite bonds
enterocytes primary cells of the small intestinal mucosa responsible for final digestion and absorption of nutrients, electrolytes and water
Villi finger like protection on the surface of the small intestine that increase the surface of the small intestine the surface area available for absorption of fluids and nutrients
Calayze To modify, especially to increase, the rate of a chemical reaction
Antibodies proteins produced by transformed B lymphocytes(Plasma Cells) in response to the presence of an antigen
Pathogens disease- causing agent such as bacteria, viruses or fungi.
Satiety Condition of feeling fuel to the point of satisfaction and unable to ingest more foods
Metabolize to be transformed by metabolism
Urea one of the final products of protein metabolism
Catabolism any destructive process by which cells convert complex substances into simple compounds resulting in realease of energy
Myelin Shealth Schwann cells wrapped around an axon of nerve cell that serves as insulation; increases speed of nerve impulse movement
prostaglandins hormone-like substances, derived from fatty acids via the cyclooxygenase pathways, that mediate many different physiologic functions, including inflammation, metabolism and smooth muscle activity
Leukotrienes substances formed from arachidonic acids that participate in inflammation.
Bile Acids Molecules secreted by the liver into small intestines where they combine into facts and fatty acids to make the fats more water soluble and active digesting enzymes
Soluble Fiber fiber deprived from food that forms a viscous solution in water because of it substantial water- holding captivity; easily degraded of the large intestine
enterocytes primary cells of the small intestinal mucosa responsible for final digestion and absorption of nutrients and electrolytes and water
encephalopathy any degenerative disease of the brain
lipids compounds, including fats, oils, waxes, sterols and triglycerides, that are insoluble in water; important structural components of cell membranes
fatty acids Organic compounds consisting of a carbon and hydrogen chain with a carboxyl group (–COOH) on one end and a methyl group (–CH3) on the other end; naturally occurring component of all fats
triglycerides compounds consisting of three bonds to glycerol; the usual storage from lipids from animals
cholesterol complex organic molecule (steroid alcohol) found in animal fats and oils, bile, blood, brain tissue, milk, egg yolk, myelin sheaths of nerve fibers, liver, kidneys and adrenal glands; necessary component of all cell membranes; can be synthesized in the bo
fat-soluble vitamins vitamins that are soluble in and absorbed from the intestine in fat; includes vitamins A, D, E and K
prostaglandins hormone-like substances, derived from fatty acids via the cyclooxygenase pathways, that mediate many different physiologic functions, including inflammation, metabolism and smooth muscle activity
leukotrienes substances formed from arachidonic acid that participate in inflammation
bile acids molecules secreted by the liver into the small intestine where they combine with fats and fatty acids to make the fats more water-soluble and activate fat-digesting enzymes (lipases)
phospholipids triglycerides in which phosphorus replaces one fatty acid; major lipids in cell membranes
palatability acceptable to the taste; describes willingness of animals to eat the food in preference to others, based on factors including taste, smell, appearance and texture
essential fatty acids fatty acids that cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by the diet
leukotrienes substances formed from arachidonic acid that participate in inflammation
adipose fat
epidermal referring to the outermost layer of skin
pyoderma any pus-producing skin condition
inorganic referring to compounds that do not contain hydrogen and carbon
enzymes any protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body by acting as a catalyst
Diet daily supply of food and water to meet an animal's nutrient and energy requirements
incombustible incapable of being burned
coenzymes organic molecules, often derived from vitamins (e.g., riboflavin [B2], niacin [B3], pantothenic acid [B5], pyridoxine [B6]) that are required by an enzyme to carry out a metabolic reaction
homeostasis state of chemical equilibrium maintained in the body by feedback and regulatory processes in response to internal and external changes; helps maintain normal body structure, function and health
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genetic material of a living organism found within cell nucleus
transduction conversion of a stimulus, whether mechanical, chemical or thermal, into an electrical impulse
free radical naturally occurring molecule in the body as a result of metabolic processes; contains an odd number of electrons that is highly reactive with other molecules and may cause cellular damage
metabolism all of the complex, interrelated chemical and physical processes that make life possible; includes anabolism, the process by which organic substances are built and maintained, and catabolism, the process by which large molecules are broken into smaller mo
polyuria excretion of a large volume of pale, dilute urine in a period of time
Created by: kylerwills