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earth science100

midterm study ch 1 - 7

Which group of minerals are the most abundant in the Earth's crust silicates
The texture of an igneous rock ________. records the rock's cooling history
Metamorphism is commonly associated with mountain building True
In the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron there are more silicon atoms than oxygen atoms False
Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of protons in the nucleus
Which one of the following is NOT true about mechanical weathering does not affect metamorphic rocks
All silicate minerals contain which two elements silicon, oxygen
Quartz is quite resistant to weathering and is an important component of sands in riverbeds and on beaches True
Isotopes of the same element have the same mass number False
The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is limestone
The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as cleavage
________ is a strong, parallel alignment of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock Foliation
As the rate of cooling increases, the size of the crystals that form decreases
Which pair of minerals is most common in detrital sedimentary rocks clay and quartz
All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number True
Most limestone has a biochemical origin True
The primary agent of contact metamorphism is heat
Evaporites have a biochemical origin false
Most minerals have a higher specific gravity than water True
Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock in a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains
The most unreliable (variable) diagnostic property of minerals such as quartz is color
Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals True
An atom's mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in its nucleus 7
Which of the following is NOT one of the eight most common elements in Earth's crust carbon
Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) primarily on the basis of particle size
Olivine and quartz are commonly found together in the same rock False
Which of the following minerals is a silicate feldspar
Which the following denotes the positively charged particles in an atom's nucleus protons
Which one of the following is not true for minerals they can be a liquid, solid, or glass
A mineral can be composed entirely of one element True
All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number True
Atoms that have an electrical charge due to a gain or loss of electrons are called ions
Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and rock salt evaporites; chemical, sedimentary rocks
Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following environments except salt flat
Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element the atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons
Metamorphism can affect only sedimentary rocks False
Glassy igneous rocks form when magma cools so slowly that mineral crystals cannot grow False
The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as hardness
One magma can produce several different igneous rocks having different mineral compositions True
All minerals exhibit cleavage False
Select the coarse-grained rock which is composed mainly of quartz and potassium feldspar from the list below granite
This igneous texture is characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes porphyritic
What element is the most abundant in the Earth's crust by weight oxygen
Which one of the following is an igneous rock rhyolite
Electrically neutral atoms have equal numbers of electrons and protons True
The ion at the center of a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron is surrounded by 4 oxygen ions
Discharge is an important concept. What statement best describes stream discharge It's a measure of how much water is moving past a certain location along the stream each second
Which part of a stream flows the fastest Near the top
If an object at the top of a stream traveled 5.0 meters in 12 seconds, what would be its velocity 0.42 m/s
At what depth should a velocity sensor be placed to estimate a stream's average velocity if it is 12.5 meters deep 7.5 meters
Calcualte the discharge of a stream with a width of 8.8 meters, a depth of 0.75 meters and an average velocity of 0.13 m/s to two decimal places 0.86 cu m/s
How many cubic meters are there in one cubic foot 0.0283
The source of heat for most hot springs is hot igneous material beneath the surface True
More water is evaporated from the ocean than is returned to the ocean by precipitation True
Loess consists mainly of silt-sized particles True
A(n) ________ is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today hanging valley
A fiord is a drowned glacial trough
________ is an irregular, usually thin till layer laid down by a retreating glacier Ground moraine
Point bars are depositional features located along the outer banks of meander bends False
Steppes are the driest of the true desert lands False
Which of the following best describes how geysers erupt with a slight reduction in pressure, water in a saturated, natural conduit suddenly boils, sending a plume of steam and hot water into the air above the vent
A ________ cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers U-shaped
Drumlins are not found singly, but in clusters
At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as distributaries
A cirque represents an erosional feature formed in what was an important accumulation zone for snow and ice at the upstream head of a glacier True
As its name implies, the water table is always very level (flat) False
Loose, undisturbed particles assume a stable slope called the angle of repose True
When water is pumped from a well, a depression is often produced in the water table. Such a depression is a(n) cone of depression
At a bend in a river, the main erosion is on the outside of the bend
A ________ forms when a block of ice is buried in drift and subsequently melts creating a pit kettle
Which one of the following is NOT true of glaciers exist only in the Northern Hemisphere
________ is one of the two, major flow mechanisms in a glacier Basal slip
A(n) ________ represents a former meltwater channel or tunnel in glacial ice that was filled with sand and gravel esker
The single most important erosional agent is running water
A broad accumulation of stratified drift deposited adjacent to the downstream edge of an end moraine is a outwash plain
Which one of the following concerning artesian wells is NOT true when the well penetrates the aquifer, the water rises in the well to the bottom of the overlying aquitard
________ are characteristics of downcutting streams and a youthful stage of valley evolution Rapids and lots of whitewater
Gravity plays an important role in all mass wasting events True
The water table is a boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above
Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today Antarctica
The transfer of rock material down slope under the influence of gravity is termed mass wasting
Desert pavement is the result of deflation
Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years accumulation exceeds wastage
Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier the basal, sliding zone
Running water is not an important erosional agent in deserts because rainfall is infrequent False
Fiords are found exclusively along the coast of Norway False
Blowouts are broad, shallow depressions excavated by deflation True
If you were to examine the longitudinal profile of a typical river, you would probably find that the gradient is steepest near the head
________ is not part of the water cycle Calcium carbonate dissolving in soil water and groundwater
One environmental problem associated with groundwater is land subsidence caused by withdrawal True
Which of the following features characterize wide streams and valleys natural levees; broad floodplains
Moraines are the only glacial deposits composed of till False
Alluvium refers to stream deposits, mainly sand and gravel True
Rapid surge movements of the Earth's tectonic plates offer a convincing explanation for the advances and retreats of the Pleistocene ice sheets False
Desert and steppe lands cover about what percentage of Earth's land area 30%
The formation of stalactites and stalagmites occurs in the zone of saturation False
A ________ stream pattern is developed only on growing mountains like volcanoes or where the land surface is tectonically doming upward radial
The term "drift" means any sediments of glacial origin
The controlling force of mass wasting is gravity
________ generally constitutes the highest percentage of the annual sediment load moved by a stream Suspended load
Glacial melting and calving occur in the zone of wastage True
Earth's radius and surface area are slowly increasing to accommodate the new oceanic crust being formed at mid-ocean ridges False
Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
Seafloor spreading rates can be estimated if the geologic ages of the magnetic field reversals are independently known True
________ most effectively outline the edges of the lithospheric plates Lines of earthquake epicenters
The oldest rocks of the oceanic crust are found in deep ocean trenches far away from active, mid-ocean ridges True
The temperature below which magnetic material can retain a permanent magnetization is called the Curie point
An extensive, late Paleozoic glaciation affected southern India, southern Africa and southeastern South America True
________ was an ancient reptile that lived in South America and Africa during the late Paleozoic Mesosaurus
Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sink into the mantle at subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries
The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate
Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage
In general, rocks of the oceanic crust are less dense than rocks of the continental crust False
________ was never proposed as evidence supporting the existence of Pangaea Islands of Precambrian rocks along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
The volcanoes of Hawaii are localized above a deep mantle hot spot; they are not part of the East Pacific oceanic ridge True
The rate of seafloor spreading is, on the average, about one meter per year False
The ________ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision northward movement of India into Eurasia
Pull-apart, rift zones are generally associated with a ________ plate boundary divergent
A transform plate boundary is characterized by ________ a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions
Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic super continent in the Southern Hemisphere? tillites (rocks formed by glaciers) in South Africa and South America
A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a hot spot
In the early part of the 20th century, ________ argued forcefully for continental drift Alfred Wegener
Hawaii is the oldest island of the Hawaiian Island chain False
The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegener could not identify a mechanism capable of moving continents
Where would you drill to recover samples of the oldest basalts of the oceanic crust, which are Jurassic in age oceanic side of the Aleutian trench
During various times in the geologic past, the polarity of Earth's magnetic field has been reversed True
The lithosphere is defined as a rigid layer of crustal and mantle material
Which of the following combinations should favor folding rather than faulting high temperature and high confining pressure
The ________ in California is the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates San Andreas strike-slip fault
Most of our knowledge about Earth's interior comes from seismic waves
In a reverse fault, the hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block True
A horst is ________ an uplifted block bounded by two normal faults
Basin and range topography, like that in the western and southwestern United States, indicates that compressive folding is active today or was active very recently, geologically speaking False
Which one of the following statements about the crust is NOT true oceanic crust is enriched in potassium, sodium, and silicon
Oceanic crust is generally thicker than continental crust False
Brittle deformation would be favored over plastic deformation in which of the following conditions cooler temperatures
The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is based on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave recorded
The record of an earthquake obtained from a seismic instrument is a(n) seismogram
S waves can travel through solid and liquid media False
On a seismogram, ________ will show the highest amplitudes surface waves
In a ________ fault, the hanging wall block moves up with respect to the footwall block reverse
The Mercalli Scale is a scale from I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake
Large circular downwarped structures are called basins
The mechanism by which rocks store and eventually release energy in the form of an earthquake is termed elastic rebound
The ________ earthquake was accompanied by extensive fire damage San Francisco, 1906
The Black Hills of South Dakota are a good example of a(n) dome
Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5 30 times
Accretionary wedges develop along subduction zones where sediments and other rocks are scraped off a descending plate and piled against the leading edge of the overriding plate True
The ________ is (are) characterized by terrane accretion that has been active throughout most of Mesozoic and Cenozoic time western margin of North America
The asthenosphere is located ________ in the upper mantle
A ________ is a near surface, intrusive, igneous rock body that results from local inflation of a horizontal sill laccolith
Most of the stratovolcanoes on Earth are located in a belt known as the Ring of Fire
The largest igneous intrusive body is called a(n) batholiths
Volcanism along divergent plate boundaries where seafloor spreading is occurring produces rocks which are basaltic in composition
Which of the following is associated with deep mantle hot spots the volcanoes of Hawaii and Quaternary activity in Yellowstone National Park
In general, cinder cones are much larger than shield volcanoes False
Which type of basaltic lava flow has its surface covered with sharp-edged, angular blocks and rubble aa
The most violent volcanic activity is associated with composite cones
The active Hawaiian volcanoes are situated directly above a major boundary between two of the Earth's largest tectonic plates False
________ is a major dissolved constituent in both magmas and volcanic gases Water vapor
Kilauea is an example of a shield volcano
The recent (geologically) volcanic activity in Yellowstone National Park is related to intraplate, hot spot volcanism
What volcanic events formed Crater Lake, OR? When did they take place caldera collapse followed major ash and pyroclastic-flow eruptions; 7000 years ago
Vents that emit only heated, volcanic gases are called fumaroles True
A ________ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows shield
Ash and lapilli are different sized pyroclastic particles True
Which of the following statements best describes the big Hawaiian volcanoes are situated in the interior of a large, Pacific plate above a hot spot deep in the mantle
Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface pahoehoe
Kilauea and Mauna Loa are ________ basaltic shield volcanoes
Magma generation at depth almost always involves partial melting, not complete melting of the source rock True
Small amounts of water can lower partial melting temperatures in silicate rocks True
____ tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano high viscosity and dissolved gas
Paricutin is an example of a cinder cone
________ destroyed the city of St. Pierre, Martinique in 1902 A nueƩ ardent
Repeated eruptions of relatively fluid lava from fissures can eventually cause an area to be covered by flood basalts True
The ________ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata principle of fossil succession
Who is credited with formulating the doctrine of uniformitarianism Hutton
Which of the following describes radioactive decay by beta particle emission the atomic number of the daughter isotope is one more than the parent; the mass numbers are the same
After three half-lives, one-ninth of an original, radioactive, parent isotope remains and eight-ninths has decayed into the daughter isotope False
Which of the following is not a very long-lived, radioactive isotope C-14
When a radioactive isotope decays by electron capture, the electron ________ combines with a proton in the nucleus; the atomic number of the daughter is one less than the parent
What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it law of superposition
Sandstone strata and a mass of granite are observed to be in contact. Which of the following statements is correct geologically the granite is older if the sandstone contains pebbles of the granite
The half-life of carbon-14 is about 6000 years. Assume that a sample of charcoal formed by burning of living wood 15,000 years ago. How much of the original carbon-14 would remain today between one-fourth and one-eighth
Which of the following is an essential characteristic of an index fossil the organism only lived for a short period of geologic time
About 88 percent of geologic time is represented by the time span called the Precambrian
Correlation of rock units between continents or widely separated areas is accomplished by using physical features such as color, texture, and thickness of units False
When a beta particle is emitted, the mass number of the isotope remains unchanged True
A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because worms have no hard parts
What is the age of the Earth accepted by most scientists today 4.5 billion years
The percentage of radioactive isotope remaining in a rock sample is 40%. How many half-lives have elapsed since the material was 100% parent atoms? between l and 2
________ is an erosional contact between tilted, older strata below and horizontal, younger strata above An angular unconformity
Visualize five, horizontal, sedimentary strata exposed in a cliff or canyon wall identified by consecutive numbers, 1 being the lowest bed and 5 being the highest. Which of the following statements concerning the strata are true beds l and 3 are older than bed 4
Which of the following geologic observations would not bear directly on working out the sequence of geologic events in an area the feldspar and quartz contents of a granite
Radiometric dating means placing events in their proper sequence False
The geologic time scale was devised before numerical dating using radioactivity was invented True
Assume that you have just examined several flat-lying sedimentary layers. After much study you determine that there is a considerable span of time for which no sedimentary rock layer exists at this site. You have just discovered a(n) disconformity
By applying the law of superposition ________ dates can be determined relative.
What of the following refers to the investigative process by which geologists identify and match sedimentary strata and other rocks of the same ages in different areas correlation.
An unconformity is a buried surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below.
Created by: rmitscher