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Alyssa AS vocab

all animal science vocab

nutrition study of the food needs of the body
ingredient edible material that may provide nutrients nutrients and energy as part of a food
nutrients any food component the body requires to support life
intestinal mucosa mucous membrane lining the intestines
energy density number of calories provided by a given weight or volume of pet food
bioavailable the ability of a nutrient, drug or other substance to be absorbed and used by the body
availability the proportion of a specific nutrient in food that is available for absorption by the body
AAFCO association of american feed control officials
USDA united states department of agriculture
FDA food and drug administration
additives substances added to food, including preservatives, coloring, and flavoring
amino acids the basic building blocks of protein
preservatives substances added to food to destroy or inhibit microbial growth and slow decay and spoilage
rancidity decompositions of fats and oils that produces off odors and flavors and destroys fat soluble vitamins
striated muscle muscle that looks striped because of alternating light and dark bands
viscera all organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities
meat and bone meal rendered product from mammalian tissues
rendered process using low heat to separate fat from bone and protein
animal digest a material produced by chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of clean undecomposed animal tissue
hydrolysis process by which complex materials are broken down into simpler ones by adding water
meat by product non rendered clean parts other than meat derived from slaughtered mammals
non rendered pet food ingredients that have not been processed or separated into fat
essential fatty acid fatty acid that cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by the diet
beef tallow solid fat made by rendering fat from cattle
essential amino acids amino acids that can not be produced in sufficient quantity in the body and must be obtained from food
fiber portion of ingested foods that resist digestion in the GI tract
calories amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5 celsius
palatability degree of readiness
digesta gastrointestinal tract contents undergoing digestion
diet daily supply of food and water to meet an animals nutrient requirements
energy ability to do work all body activities require energy and all needs are met by consuming food
metabolism all of the complex interrelated chemical and physical processes that make life possible
dry matter method of expressing a foods nutrient content on a moisture free basis
solvent liquid in which another substance is dissolved to form a solution
maintenance the amount and quality of the diet required to maintain an adult animal without providing addition nutrients for production
metabolic water water in the body that is produced during metabolism of nutrients
digestibility proportion of nutrients in food available for absorption from the GI tract
gross energy total amount of potential energy in a food
resting energy requirement energy required for a normal unfasted animal at rest in a thermoneutral environment
nutrient to energy ratio ratio of a foods nutrient content
body condition score determination of an animals relative proportion of muscle to fat using visual assessment and palpation
lean body mass fat free mass of the body
glycogen main storage form of carbohydrates in animals
mono saccharides simple sugars
disaccharides sugars composed of two simple saccharides
polysaccharides complex carbohydrates that yield simple sugars when digested
short chain fatty acids fatty acids containing two or six carbon atoms that are produced by microbial metabolism in the large intestine
inulin starch found in the roots of certain plants that yields fructose when metabolized
pectin soluble fiber obtained from ripe fruit
cellulose long chain polysaccharide that is a component of dietary fiber
adsorbs attracts and retains material
satiety condition of feeling full to the point of satisfaction and unable to ingest more food
enzymes any protein that speeds up chemical reaction in the body by acting as a catalyst
nonessential amino acids amino acids synthesized in the body in sufficient amounts
glycoproteins proteins joined to carbohydrates
glycolipids lipids that contain carbohydrate groups
lactase enzyme in the intestinal mucosa that splits lactose into glucose and galactose
essential dietary nutrients nutrients that the body cannot synthesize at a sufficient rate to meet body needs
metabolically essential required by the body for normal function
gluconeogenesis production of glucose from amino acids
glycerol main component of triglycerides
glucokinase enzyme that catalyzes glucose if ATP is present
hexokinase enzyme that helps transfer a high energy phosphate group from ATP to hexose
crude fiber laboratory estimate of the cellulose hemicellulos and lignin content of a food ingredient or feed.
dipeptides compounds consisting of two amino acids connected by a peptide bond
tripeptides compounds containing three amino acids linked by peptide bonds
enterocyst primary cells of the small intestinal mucosa responsible for final digestion and absorption of nutrients
antibodies proteins produced by transformed B lymphocytes in response to the presence of an antigen
pathogens disease causing agents
urea one of the final products of protein metabolism
catabolism any destructive process by which cells convert complex substances
anabolism the constuctive phase of metabolism during which the body creates tissues from basic building blocks
moiety any equal part any part or portion of a molecule
encephalopathy any degenerative disease of the brain
lipids compounds including fats oils waxes sterols and triglycerides that are insoluble in water
fat soluble vitamins vitamins that are soluble in and absorbed from the intestine in fat includes vitamins A,D,E,K
lymphatic system series of vessels or ducts that carries excess tissue fluid to blood vessels near the heart
myelin sheath schwann cells wrapped around an axon of a nerve cell that serve as insulation
prostaglandins hormone like substances derived from fatty acids via the cyclooxygenase pathways
bile acids molecules secreted by the liver into the small intestine where they combine with fats and fatty acids to make the fats more soluble