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Edward AS Vocab

All Animal Science Vocab

QuestionAnswer
nutrition The study of the food needs of the body
malnutrition abnormal nutrition; caused by a diet that contains too much or too little of one or more essential nutrients
nutrient any food component the body requires to support life; includes water, carbohydrates, protein, fat, minerals and vitamins
glucagon hormone produced by the pancreas that increases blood glucose level
glycogen main storage form of carbohydrates in animals, primarily in the liver and muscle tissue; polysaccharide readily converted to glucose as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs
diet daily supply of food and water to meet an animal's nutrient and energy requirements
ingredient edible material that may provide nutrients and energy as part of a food
energy ability to do work; all body activities require energy and all needs are met by consuming food, which contains energy in chemical form; energy content of food is expressed as kilocalories (kcal)
digestible capable of being digested
bioavailable the ability of a nutrient, drug or other substance to be absorbed and used by the body
dry matter basis method of expressing a food's nutrient content on a moisture-free basis
energy basis concentration of a nutrient in food expressed per unit of energy, usually per 100 kilocalories (kcal) of metabolizable energy (e.g., g/100 kcal ME)
kilocalorie 1,000 calories; one calorie is the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g water from 14.5° to 15.5° C
metabolizable energy (ME) amount of energy in a food available for the body's use; measured in calories or kilocalories (kcal; 1,000 calories = 1 kcal)
solvent iquid in which another substance is dissolved to form a solution
hydrolysis process by which complex materials are broken down into simpler ones by adding water; one of the most basic and prevalent life processes
maintenance the amount and quality of the diet required to maintain an adult animal without providing additional nutrients for production, reproduction or weight gain
metabolic water water in the body that is produced during metabolism of nutrients
calorie amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5° Celsius (C) to 15.5° C
digestibility proportion of nutrients in food available for absorption from the gastrointestinal tract
gross energy total amount of potential energy in food; not completely used by an animal because some energy losses occur during digestion and are expelled in urine and feces
body condition score (BCS) determination of an animal's relative proportion of muscle to fat using visual assessment and palpation
lean body mass fat-free mass of the body; that part of the body including all its components except fat (stored lipids)
energy density number of calories provided by a given weight or volume of pet food; expressed as kilocalories of metabolizable energy per kilogram or pound of diet (e.g., kcal ME/kg)
enzymes any protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body by acting as a catalyst
monosaccharides simple sugars; carbohydrates that cannot be broken down into simpler compounds by the addition of water; e.g., glucose, fructose and galactose
nonessential amino acids amino acids synthesized in the body in sufficient amounts so that they do not need to be obtained from food
amino acids the basic building blocks of protein; any of several organic compounds containing amino (–NH2) and carboxyl (–COOH) groups and occurring naturally in plants and animals
short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) fatty acids containing two to six carbon atoms that are produced by microbial metabolism in the large intestine; e.g., acetic acid, butyric acid and propionic acid
AAFCO Association of American Feed Control Officials
satiety condition of feeling full to the point of satisfaction and unable to ingest more food
crude fiber laboratory estimate of the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content of a food ingredient or feed
essential amino acids amino acids that cannot be produced in sufficient quantity in the body and must be obtained from food
antibodies proteins produced by transformed B lymphocytes (plasma cells) in response to the presence of an antigen
catabolism any destructive process by which cells convert complex substances (e.g., dipeptides, disaccharides, amino acids) into simpler compounds, resulting in release of energy
encephalopathy any degenerative disease of the brain
cholesterol complex organic molecule found in animal fats and oils, bile, blood, milk, myelin sheaths of nerve fibers, liver, kidneys and adrenal glands; necessary component of all cell membranes; can be synthesized in the body or obtained from the diet
phospholipids triglycerides in which phosphorus replaces one fatty acid; major lipids in cell membranes
palatability acceptable to the taste; describes willingness of animals to eat the food in preference to others, based on factors including taste, smell, appearance and texture
eukotrienes substances formed from arachidonic acid that participate in inflammation
adipose fat
pruritic extremely itchy
epidermal referring to the outermost layer of skin
pyoderma any pus-producing skin condition
inorganic referring to compounds that do not contain hydrogen and carbon
incombustible incapable of being burned
feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) a group of diseases that involves irritation of the lower urinary tract (ureters, urinary bladder and urethra); signs include frequent urination, straining or inability to urinate, bloody urine and, at times, depression, vomiting, dehydration or death
organic generally refers to substances produced by metabolism of a living organism, especially carbon-containing compounds
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genetic material of a living organism found within cell nuclei
Epithelial pertaining to or composed of epithelium, the cellular covering of internal and external body surfaces, including the lining of vessels and other small cavities
carotenoid family of natural pigments (red, orange, purple and yellow) found in plants and animals; many act as precursors of vitamin A and as antioxidants
hormone chemical messenger that is produced and excreted by specific body cells to regulate specific organs, cells or substances
cholecalciferol vitamin D3; one of several naturally occurring forms of vitamin D, which is required for normal development of teeth and bones; commonly found in fish liver oil and produced in skin after exposure to ultraviolet light
rickets disease of young growing animals caused by a nutritional deficiency of phosphorus or vitamin D; characterized by failure of bone calcification
osteomalacia abnormal softening of the bones as a result of a nutritional deficiency of vitamin D, phosphorus or calcium; clinical signs include stiff gait, lameness, restlessness while standing, cracking sounds in the joints while walking and abnormal posture
warfarin a compound used as rat poison and an anticoagulant in humans; interferes with vitamin K activity, which is needed for blood-clotting
collagen structural protein commonly found in skin, tendon, bone cartilage and other connective tissues
carnitine a water-soluble, vitamin-like substance present at high levels in heart and skeletal muscles; functions as a coenzyme in fatty acid oxidation
tyrosine nonessential amino acid synthesized from phenylalanine; a precursor of thyroid hormones, catecholamines (e.g., epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine) and melanin
ingredient edible material that may provide nutrients and energy as part of a food
intestinal mucosa mucous membrane lining the intestines
energy density number of calories provided by a given weight or volume of pet food; expressed as kilocalories of metabolizable energy per kilogram or pound of diet (e.g., kcal ME/kg)
bioavailable the ability of a nutrient, drug or other substance to be absorbed and used by the body
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
preservatives substances added to foods to destroy or inhibit microbial growth and slow decay, discoloration or spoilage under normal conditions of use or storage
meat clean flesh derived from slaughtered mammals (e.g., cattle, sheep, pigs) and limited to striated muscle associated with the skeleton, tongue, diaphragm, heart or esophagus
viscera all organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities (e.g., lungs, kidneys, intestines)
striated muscle muscle that looks striped because of alternating light and dark bands (e.g., skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle)
hydrolysis process by which complex materials are broken down into simpler ones by adding water; one of the most basic and prevalent life processes
meat by-products non-rendered clean parts, other than meat, derived from slaughtered mammals; includes meat trimmings, lungs, spleen, kidneys, brain, liver, blood, bone, stomach and intestines (without their contents)
non-rendered pet food ingredients that have not been processed or separated into fat, bone and protein components
poultry by-products non-rendered clean parts of slaughtered poultry carcasses such as heads, feet and viscera, must be free of fecal content and foreign matter; does not include feathers
poultry by-product meal ground, rendered, clean parts of slaughtered poultry carcasses such as necks, feet, undeveloped eggs and intestines; does not include digestive tract contents, feces or feathers, except for what cannot be avoided when using good manufacturing practices
rendered processed using low heat to separate fat from bone and protein while simultaneously drying the material
beef tallow solid fat made by rendering fat from cattle; consists primarily of triglycerides of long-chain fatty acids
chicken by-products non-rendered clean parts of chicken carcasses such as heads, feet and viscera that are free from fecal content; does not include feathers
hydrolyzed result of being split into smaller compounds by the addition of water
fiber the portion of ingested foods that resists digestion in the gastrointestinal tract; composed of carbohydrates (e.g., cellulose, hemicellulose, gums, pectin) and lignin
animal digest a material produced by chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of clean, undecomposed animal tissues excluding hair, horns, teeth, hooves and feathers; sometimes used as a flavor coating for pet foods
brewers dried yeast dried Saccharomyces yeast that no longer causes fermentation and results from brewing beer and ale; must contain a minimum of 35% crude protein
digesta gastrointestinal tract contents undergoing digestion
ad libitum (ad lib) free-choice feeding; food available at all times throughout the day
nutrient density concentration of nutrients per fixed portion of food; also, proportion of nutrients provided in relationship to the calories contained in a specific food
maintenance the amount and quality of the diet required to maintain an adult animal without providing additional nutrients for production, reproduction or weight gain
FTC Federal Trade Commission
rendering process used to make meat and poultry meals