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study of structures (names) anatomy
physiology study of functions of structures
classification of man: domain eukarya kingdom animalia phylum chordata sudphylum vertebrata class mammalia family hominidae genus homo species sapiens
cardiologist heart
otolaryngologist ears,nose,throat
neurologist brain
ophthalmologist eyes
dermatologist skin
urologist bladder/urinary tract
oncologist cancer
physical therapist rehab of muscules
rheumatologist arthritis
nephrologist kidney
hematologist blood
father of experimental physiology Galen
father of anatomy vesalus
gross anatomy see with naked eye
histology tissues
morbid anatomy diseases
comparative anatomy compare structures of different species
development anat. diff. stages of growth
systematic anat. study of each system
regional anat. regions of body
surface anat. surface of structures
anatomic anat. xrays,MRI,ultrasound
applied anat. apply knowledge
diagnostic tools EKG,bloodwork, heart monitor, xray, MRI, urine/stool test, blood pressure, temperature
organization of human body cells tissues organs organ system organism
cells are made up of CHNOPS,mostly water, organelles
ribosome make protein
mitochondria make ATP
nucleus brain
vacuoles hold water/food
endoplasmic reticulum highways
superior (cranial) towards head
inferior (caudal) below head
anterior (ventral) towards front
posterior ( dorsal) towards back
lateral next to
medial towards middle
proximal close to
distal far away
superfical towards surface
deep down inside
ipsillateral same side of body
contralateral opposite side
supine face up
prone face down
horizontal (transverse) plane superior/interior sections
frontal (coronal) plane anterior/posterior sections
midsagittal plane down middle EQUAL
sagittal plane down middle NOT ALWAYS EQUAL
pectoral girdle where arms attach to main trunk
pelvic girdle where legs attach to main trunk
regions of ABDOMINAL AREA right hypochondriac region epi-gastric region left hypochondriac region right lumbar region umbilical region left lumber region right iliac region hypo-gastric region left iliac region
breathing muscle diaphragm
DORSAL CAVITY (towards back) a. cranial cavity (brain) b. vertebral cavity (spinal chord)
VENTRAL CAVITY a.thoracic cavity (chest) 1. PLURAL (LUNGS) 2. MEDIASTINUM (HEART, BRONCHI, THYMUS) b. abdominopelvic cavity 1.ABDOMINAL (tummy,intestines, kidney, liver, spleen,etc) 2.PELVIC (ovary,prostate, bladder, rectum) c. SCROTAL (testes)
parietal membranes line trunk cavities
visceral membranes cover and touch organs
FYI space between these 2 membranes is filled with serous membranes to reduce friction when moving
visceral pleura, parietal pleura lungs
visceral pericardium parietal pericardium heart
mesenteries 2 layered membranes
mesenteries: 1.still serous membranes 2.doubled layered 3.pathway for nerves, blood & lymphatic vessels 4.anchor abdominal organs
frenulum of the lip flap of skin connecting lip to gums
salivary glands: sublingual, submandibular, parotid
sublingual gland below tongue
submandibular gland under jaw
parotid largest, in cheeks MUMPS**
WORST FOODS FOR YOU 1.hydrogenated fats 2.olestra 3.nitrates 4.alcohol 5.raw oysters 6.saturated animal fats 7.soda 8.low acid home canned foods 9.high fat snacks 10. liquid meals
salivary amylase breaks down
teeth 32 front- incisors pointy- canine back- molars
mastication chewing
deglutition swallowing
uvula makes food go down
pharynx throat area
esophagus food tube to stomach
peristalsis grinding movement
esophagus position in relation to trachea anterior
epiglottis close off windpipe when swallowing
acid reflux acid from stomach coming up esophagus
we need: 1.carbs 2.lipids 3.proteins 4.minerals 5.vitamins
minerals calcium,potassium,sodium,iron,iodide
vitamins A,C,D,K
intracellular digestion within cell
extracellular digestion outside cell
names for digestive tract 1.gastrointestinal 2.alimentary
chyme partially digested food
pH of stomach 1-3
bacteria that causes alcers Helicobacteria pylori
mucus lines stomach to keep acid from eating wall
only thing that can seep through stomach walls alcohol
where most digestion occurs small intestine
where stomach meets small intestine pyloric sphincter valve
breaks down proteins into peptides peptidase
breaks down sucrose sucrase
breaks down complex carbs amylase
breaks down lipids lipase
makes bile liver
job of bile breaks down things into smaller
stores bile gall bladder
3 parts of small intestine 1.duodenum 2.jejunum 3.ileum
duodenum most important in digestion
jejunum absorbs nutrients
ilein longest, absorb nutrients
villi/microvill fingerlike projections
liver detoxifies/filers converts excess sugars into glycogen
pancreas produces insulin,glycogen,and pancreatic juices
removes water from waste large intestine (colon)
too much water removed diarrhea
too little water removed constipated
Ileocecal valve small and large intestine meet
where appendix hangs off Ileocecal valve
sections of colon ascending,transverse,descending,sigmoid colon,rectum
hepatitis inflammation of liver
hemorrhoids inflammed vein from pressure
diverticulitis cant digest food right no seeds
celiac disease cant digest gluten
colon cancer colonoscopy
cirrhosis liver cells overworked
open circulatory system blood is not contained in vessels ANTHROPODS,MOLLUSKS
cavity full of blood hemocoel
closed circulatory system blood is closed in heart and vessels SEGMENTED WORMS, ALL VERTEBRATES
functions of circulatory system 1.carry O2 and food to cells 2.takes wastes away 3.carries hormones/other chemicals 4.regulates body temp.
top chamber in heart atrium
bottom chamber in heart ventricle
fish 2 chambered
amphibians/reptiles 3 chamber
birds/mammals 4 chambered
function of atrium recieve old blood deoxygenated
function of ventricle pump blood out to lungs and body
types of circulation 1.systemic-all systems 2.pulmomary-lungs 3.coronary- heart 4.portal- organs 5.fetal-baby
alveoli airsacs in lungs with blood
protective covering of heart pericardium
muscle layer of heart three!
endocardium inner layer, thin
myocardium middle layer,heart,thick
epicardium outer layer, thin
veins carry deoxygenated blood
arteries carry oxygenated blood
CIRCULATION THROUGH HEART STEPS: 1.S&I vena cava 2.right ventricle 3.right atrium 4.pulmonary artery 5.lungs/o2 6.pulmonary vein 7.left atrium 8.left ventricle 9.aorta 10.body cells
largest veins superior and inferior vena cava
sup. vena cave head shoulders arms etc
inf. vena cava legs,trunk
pulmonary artery only artery that carries away from heart
pulmonary vein only vein that bring blood in
largest artery aorta
AV valves Atrioventricle valve (atrium.ventricle) 1.right AV - TRICUSPID VALVE 2.left AV- MITRAL VALVE
SL valves Semilunar valves
Circulation through body heart arteries arterioles capillaries diffusion @ cellular level venules veins heart again
sinatrial valve natural pacemaker
heart beat 72/min
rapid heart beat Tachycardia
slower heart beat bradycardia
jump starts heart after heart attack defibrillator
aneurysm wall of blood vessel is weakened and bursts
blood pressure cup sphygmomanometer
normal blood pressure 120/80
top number systolic, pressure when heart is pumping
bottom number diastolic,pressure between beats
high blood pressure hypertension
borderline hypertension 140/40
high blood pressure 160/95 plus
hypertension at drs office white coat hypertension
hypertension with no symptoms silent killer
atheroscelerosis hardening of arteries/veins
good cholesterol HDL high density lipoproteins
bad chloesterol LDL low density lipoproteins
55 to 60% of blood is plasma
90% of plasma is water
thrombocytes platelets
makes blood cells bone marrow
proteins that cause clotting thrombin fibrinogen
blood doesnt clot hemophilia
leukocytes white blood cells
neutrophils kill bacteria and infection
eosinphils attack parasites
basophils release histamines and flush out allergens
lymphocytes secrete antobodies
monocytes kill bacteria
erthrocytes red blood cells
attracts oxygen hemoglobin
picks up co2 anhydrase
production of RBC erthropoiesis
hormone the produces RBC erthropoietin
dont have enough RBC anemia
gives blood type RBC
function of lymphatic system 1.defense 2.return excess fluids and substances 3.transports fats from sm int to bloodstream
lymphatic vessels consist of lymph nodes,tonsils, thymus, spleen
2 things repiratory system requires moisture and large surface area
insects have trachea resp. system have spiracles
earthworms breathe through skin
fish gills
amphibians gills when young, lungs when older
reptiles lungs
birds lungs
mammals lungs
use most o2 birds
breathing controlled by medulla
nasopharnx where nose meets throat
oropharynx where mouth meets throat
larynopharynx voice box
trachea wind pipe
bronchi tubes that go to lungs
bronchioles smaller tubes off bronchi
alveoli air sacs on end of bronchioles
emphysema air sacs destroyed
bronchitis inflammation of bronchi
pneumonia viral and bacterial
asthma short of breath, inflammation and constriction of valves
diphtheria too much mucus
tuberculosis bacteria, bloody mucus
influenza attacks resp. system
pleurisy inflammation of membrane around lungs
asbestosis inhaling fibers of asbestsis
lung cancer ):
Created by: amandagail