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psy 100 terms

chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death Human Development
research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time Longitudinal Design
research design in which several different age-groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time Cross-Sectional Design
research design in which participants are first studied by means of a cross-sectional design but are also followed and assessed for a period of no more than six years Cross-Sequential Design
the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions Nature
the influence of the enviornment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions Nurture
the science of inherited traits Genetics
special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism DNA
section of DNA having the same arrangement of chemical elements Gene
tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA Chromosome
referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait Dominant
referring to a gene that only influences that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene Recessive
the moment at which a female becomes pregnant Conception
the female sex cell, or egg Ovum
the union of the ovum and sperm Fertilization
cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm Zygote
identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo Monozygotic Twins
often called fraternal twins, occurring when two eggs each get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time Dizygotic Twins
first two weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining Germinal Period
name for the developing organism from two weeks to eight weeks after fertilization Embryo
the period from two to eight weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop Embryonic Period
times during whhich certain enviornmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant Crtical Periods
any factor that can cause a birth defect Teratogen
the time from about eight weeks after conception until the birth of child Fetal Period
name for the developing orgaism from eight weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby Fetus
the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory Cognitive Development
in this case, a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events Scheme
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the enviorment Sensorimotor Stage
the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight Object Permanence
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world Preoperational Stage
the inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes Egocentrism
in Piaget's theory, thhe tendecy of a yound child to focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features Concentration
in Piaget's theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature Conservation
in Piaget's theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action Irreversibility
third stage of cognitive development in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical thought processed but is not yet capable of abstract thinking Concrete Operations Stage
Piaget's last stage of cognitive development, in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking Formal Operations Stage
process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable Scaffolding
Vygootsky's concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as easy, difficult, and slow to warm up Termperament
the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver Attachment
the behavior associated with being male or female Gender
perception of one's gender and the behavior that is associated with that gender Gender Identity
the period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a
in Piaget's theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature Conservation
in Piaget's theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action Irreversibility
third stage of cognitive development in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical thought processed but is not yet capable of abstract thinking Concrete Operations Stage
Piaget's last stage of cognitive development, in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking Formal Operations Stage
process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable Scaffolding
Vygootsky's concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as easy, difficult, and slow to warm up Termperament
the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver Attachment
the behavior associated with being male or female Gender
perception of one's gender and the behavior that is associated with that gender Gender Identity
the period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a
in Piaget's theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature Conservation
in Piaget's theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action Irreversibility
third stage of cognitive development in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical thought processed but is not yet capable of abstract thinking Concrete Operations Stage
Piaget's last stage of cognitive development, in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking Formal Operations Stage
process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable Scaffolding
Vygootsky's concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as easy, difficult, and slow to warm up Termperament
the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver Attachment
the behavior associated with being male or female Gender
perception of one's gender and the behavior that is associated with that gender Gender Identity
the period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not ye an independent self- supporting adult Adolescence
the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak Puberty
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm Personal Fable
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent's thoughts and characteristics as they themselvs are Imaginary Audience
first level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in thich the child's behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior Preconventional Morality
second level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by conforming to the society's norms of behavior Conventional Morality
third level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the person's behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual and that may be in disagreement with accepted social norms Postconventional Morality
fifth stage of personality development in which the adolescent must find a consistent sense of self Identity Versus Role Confusion
the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman's reproductive capability Menopause
gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of middle-aged males Andropause
an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self Intamicy
providing guidance to one's children or the next generation, or contributing to the well-bieng of the next generation through career or volunteer work Generativity
style of parenting in which parent is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child Authoritarian Parenting
style of parenting in which parent makes few, if any demands on a child's behavior Permissive Parenting
permissive parenting in which parents are uninvolved with child or child's behavior Permissive Neglectful
permissive parenting in which parents are so involved that children are allowed to behave without set limits Permissive Indulgent
style of parenting in which parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits on a child's behavior Authoritative Parenting
sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego Ego Integrity
theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are happier if they remain active in some way, such as volunteering or developing a hobby Activity Theory
Created by: livewire4lyfe