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Lecture Unit 2

Composition of Blood PLASMA-water, proteins, & other solutes. 55%. FORMED ELEMENTS-Buffy Coat. Leukocytes & thrombocytes. <1%. Erethrocytes-(RBCs) 44%.
Hematocrit % of blood volume made of RBCs. Can vary w/ hormone changes and altitude. Males: 42-56%. Females: 38-46%.
Blood Doping Athlete donates RBCs to himself. Removed and stored. Body replaces lost. Injected back in increasing hematocrit. Can also be done w/ Erythropoietin (EPO) increases RBC production. Dangerous.
Functions of Blood TRANSPORTATION: O2 & CO2-RBCs. Nutrients, hormones, & waste-Plasma. REGULATION: Absorbs & distributes heat-Plas. Constrict/dilate-vessels. Regulates pH & fluid levels. PROTECTION: infection-WBCs. Transports antibodies-Plas. Forms blood clots-Platelets.
Blood Plasma Mixture of water, proteins, & solutes. Serum is plasma w/o the clotting proteins (fibrinogen). Water makes up 92% of plasma volume. Facilitates trasport of materials in the plasma.
Plasma Proteins 7%. Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogen, Regulatory proteins.
Albumins Most abundant plasma protein. Regulate osmosis between blood & interstitial fluid. Transport proteins & lipids. Keeps blood in blood vessels.
Globulins Binds, supports, & protects water-insoluble hormones & ions. Antibodies (gamma globulins).
Fibrinogen Converts into fibrin. Blood clot formation.
Regulatory proteins Enzymes & hormones.
Erythrocytes (RBCs) Not a true cell-no nucleus or organelles. Biconcave discs-allow gases to be loaded & unloaded. Filled w/ hemoglobin-transports O2, CO2. Rouleau-RBCs line up in single file as they pass through small vessels. Cant divide. Nucleus pops out. Erythropoesis.
Erythrocyte Life Cycle 1.Form in red bone marrow. 2.Circulate in bloodstream for 120 days. 3.Phagocytized in the liver & spleen (not kidney). 4.Heme components recycled. 5.Proteins broken down & used to make new RBCs.
Blood Types-ABO group Surface antigens identify blood type. ABO group: Antigen A & B. Blood type A, B, AB, or O. Antibodies against ABO antigen it does not contain.
Blood Types-Rh (D) blood group Rh(D) antigen on RBCs. Blood type Rh+ or Rh-. Rh- individual doesn't develop antibodies unless exposed to Rh+ blood-birth or injury of Rh+ baby can sensitize Rh- mom against future Rh+ babies. RhoGAM prevents rejection in moms.
Blood Transfusions Unsuccessful: agglutination or clumping occurs. Universal donor: O- ( no antigens). Universal recipient: AB+ ( no antibodies).
Erythrocyte disorders Polycythemia, Anemia
Polycythemia Too many erythrocytes in blood. Increase in viscosity of blood placing strain on heart. High BP. Therapeutic blood donations.
Anemia Too few RBCs leads to low O2 levels. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA-Lack of iron diet or chronic blood loss. SICKLE CELL DISEASE-Genetic.RBC is sickle shaped. Hemolysis. Platelets stick to rough edge.
Leukocytes (WBCs) True cells-have nucleus & organelles. Larger than RBCs. Help initiate immune response & defend against pathogens. Function outside bloodstream.
Diapedesis WBCs leave bloodstream & enter tissues. Squeeze between endothelial cells.
Chemotaxis WBCs are attracted to site of infection by damaged cells, dead cell, or invading pathogens. Communication.
Types of Leukocytes Granulocytes & Agranulocytes. Granny PHIL is A CYTE.
Granulocytes Neutrophils-phagocytize infectious pathogens by secreting lysozyme. Eosinophils-Parasitic infections. Allergies. Basophils-Allergic reactions-histamine (allergy symps), heparine (inhibits clotting).
Agraonulocytes Lymphocytes-in lymphatic tissue. produce immune response. B & T lymphocytes. Monocytes-phagocytize bacteria, cell fragments, dead cells, & debris.
Abnormal WBC Count Normal: 5,000-10,000 per microliter of blood. Leukocytosis-high WBC count=infection, inflammation, extreme stress. Leukopenia-Low WBC count-viral or bacterial infections.
Leukemia Cancer in the leukocyte-forming cells. Proliferation of abnormal leukocytes. Cancer cells take over bone marrow & slow production of erythrocytes & thrombocytes. Causes anemia & bleeding.
Thrombocytes AKA Platelets. Cell-fragments of megakaryocytes. Live for 8-10 days. Stick to any rough edge.
Blood clots form from: Fibrin (from fibrinogen) makes a web, & Thrombocytes stick.
Clotting Disorders Thrombocytopenia-Abnormally low concentration of platelets. Results from damage to bone marrow, chemotherapy, leukemia, or over active spleen. Hemophilia-Lack of clotting factors. Usually acquired genetically.
Hemopoiesis (Hematopoiesis) Production of formed elements-erethropoiesis, thrombopoiesis, leukopoiesis. Occurs in red marrow. Erythropoietin (EPO) made by the kidney to control RBC production. Hemopietic stem cells form all blood cells.
Mesenchyme, Hemocytoblast Mesenchme is common origin for stem cell. Hemocytoblast is blood stem cell.
Myeloid line Normoblast, nucleus ejected, Reticulocyte, organelles ejected, Erythrocyte. Megakaryocyte, Platelets.
Lymphoid line Lymphoid stem cell to B-lymphblast & T-lymphblast to B-lymphcyte & T-lymphocyte.
Created by: punkaloo