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Endocrine System

Lecture Unit 2

Endocrine Glands Develop from all 3 embryonic germ layers. Ductless. Secrete hormones directly into the blood stream that bind to receptors on cells. Help maintain homeostasis. Endocrinology.
Endocrine vs. Nervous system (Both control) Endocrine: slower. lasts longer. has widespread general effects & can affect any cell in the body. Uses hormones. Nervous: fast. need direct contact. Neurotransmitters.
Hormones Chemical messengers. Released into blood by endocrine glands that regulate specific body functions.
Tropic hormones Hormones that affect the release of other hormones. Act on glands. Not cells. Ex. Gonadotropins (LH & FSH) affect the release of sex hormones from the gonads.
Three structural types of hormones Peptides: chains of amino acids. Most common. ex. growth hormone (GH). Steroids: lipid derived from cholesterol. es. testosterone. Biogenic Amines: produced by altering a specific amino acid. ex. thyroid hormone (TH)
Hypothalamus: 3 endocrine functions 1. Produces regulatory hs that either stimulate or inhibit anterior pituitary hormone secretion. 2. Antidiuretic & oxytocin stored & released from posterior pituitary. 3. Overseer of ANS. Stimulates secretion of adrenal medulla-sympathetic innervation.
Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) "master gland" Composed of Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis), Hypophyseal portal system, and Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis).
Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis) Composed of glandular tissue.
Hypophyseal portal system Portal veins that shunt blood carrying regulatory hormones from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary before blood returns to the heart.
Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis) Part of the brain. Nervous tissue.
Posterior Pituitary Hormones Made in hypothalamus. Antidiuretic hormone (Vasopressin) & Oxytocin.
Antidiuretic hormone (Vasopressin) Initiates water reabsorption during dehydration. Increases BP through vasoconstriction. Hypersecretion causes edema. Hypsecretion causes Diabetes Insipidus. More of this released at night-pee less. Target organ: kidney.
Oxytocin Induces smooth muscle contraction in reproductive organs. Uterine contractions and milk ejection. Surges during orgasm.
Anterior Pituitary Hormones FLAT PGM. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Adenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Prolactin (PRL), Growth Hormone (GH), Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH).
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) & Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Help with reproduction. You go into puberty when these surge. Precocious puberty-happens too young.
Adenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Affects adrenal gland.
Prolactin (PRL) Creates milk.
Growth hormone disorders Pituitary Dwarfism-hyposecretion of GH in children. Pituitary Gigantism-hypersecretion of GH in children. Ancromegaly-hypersecretion of GH during adulthood (epiphyseal plates closed). Bones get wider & thicker.
Pineal gland Small. End of short stalk on roof of diencephalon. Produces melatonin-helps regulate circadian rhythm-sleep/wake cycles.
Thyroid gland Butterfly shaped. Inferior to larynx. Largest pure endocrine gland. Produces thyroid hormone & calcitonin.
Thyroid hormone (T3-triiodothyronine & T4-thyroxine) Increases metabolic rate.
Calcitonin Lowers blood calcium level. Decreases osteoclast activity & increases osteoblast activity.
Disorders of Thyroid Gland ENDEMIC GOITER-dietary iodine deficiency. HYPERTHYROIDISM-excessive TH production. Graves disease-loss of thyroid feedback control. Exophtalmos (eyes pop), tachycardia. HYPOTHYROIDISM-decreased TH. Fatigue, weakness, dry skin, weight gain, reduced libido.
Parathyroid Glands Lie on posterior surface of thyroid gland. Microscopic. Produce parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Increases blood Calcium concentration. Increases osteoclast activity and decreases osteoblast activity. Opposite effect of calcitonin. Antagonistic hormones.
Thymus Lower neck & midiastinum. Yellows & atrophies after puberty. Produces thymic hormones: thymopoietin & thymosins. They stimulate differentiation, growth, & maturation of T-lymphocytes (WBCs).
Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glands Pyramidal organs on kidney surface.
Adrenal cortex Aldosterone-water & salt retention-kidney. Cortisol-helps body deal with stressful situations. Androgens-sex hormones.
Adrenal medulla Epinephrine (adrenaline) & Norepinephrine-enhance fight or flight response.
Corticosteroids Steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex. ex. cortisol. Act on the immune sys by blcoking inflammation. Inhibit WBCs-sede effect to them is increased susceptibility to infection. Treat inflammation diseases-R arthritis, Lupis, Inflammatory bowel disease.
Cushings Syndrome Hypersecretion of cortisol. Symptoms: Re-distributed body obesity-from arms and legs to trunk. Moon face. Buffalo hump. Kidney stones. Skin becomes fragile and thin.
Addison Disease Hyposecretion of cortisol & sometimes aldosterone. Symptoms: Weight loss. General fatigue. Hypotesion. Skin darkening.
Pancreas Posterior wall of abdominal cavity. Pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans). Produces Glucagon-alpha cells. Glycogen breakdown in liver cells. Insulin-Beta cells. Cells take up glucose.
Diabetes mellitus Type 1: diminished production of insulin by pancreatic islet cells. Develops suddenly. Type 2: develops more slowly. Gestational: during pregnancy. 20-50% chance of development of maternal Type 2 later.
Created by: punkaloo