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patho

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criteria for immunogenicity of antigens foreigness to the host cell, adequate size, chemical complexity, present in sufficient quantity.
Immediate hypersensitivity reaction. It is a reaction that occur within minutes to a few hours after exposure to antigens.
Delayed hypersensitive reaction It is a type of reaction which takes place several hours and at maximum severity days after reexposure to the antigen.
Types of hypersensitivity reaction. It includes allergy, Autoimmunity, Alloimmunity
Hypersensitivity It is altered immunologic response to an antigen that results in disease or damage to the individual.
septicemia/bacteremia it is the presence of bacteria in the blood caused by the failure of the body's defense mechanism.
atopic individuals who are genetically predisposed to develop allergies. one parent 40% 2 parents 80% they produce higher quantities of IgE and have more Fc receptors fro IgE on mast cells.
Bronchiospasm it is a constriction of smooth muscles in airway walls.
pathogenic defense Developing antiphagocytic coats, producing toxins that kill neutrophils, multiplying at rate that surpasses the defense and immune response, hiding in cells and away from inflammatory and immune response, undergoing antigenic variations.
Edotoxic shock it is a complication of sepsis and can be fatal to the individual.
endotoxic they are in cell walls of gram negative bacteria and release during lysis or destruction of bacteria.
Exotoxins they are proteins released during bacterial growth.
Effects of exotoxins inhibits the synthesis of protein.
Allergens antigens that induce an allergic response
haptens Antigens too small to be immunogens but can combine with larger ones to become one.
Antigenic determinant it is the precise area of the antigens that is recognize by the antibodies (T cell). part of the antigen that can initiate an immune response through lymphocyte binding
Antigen binding site It is the part on the antibody T receptor that matches the epitope.
cytotoxic T lymphocyte they are responsible for the cell mediated destruction of tumor cells or cells infected with viruses, They can reognize antigens on surfaces of any type of cell that has been infected by a virus or has cancerous cells., it requires CD8 receptors
Monoclonal antibodies It is produced in the lab from one B cell The antibodies are of the same class specificity and function.
Secretory immune system it is an independent immune system that protect the external surface of the body. example: tears, sweat, saliva, mucus, breast milk.
IgA It has two subclasses-IgA1, IgA2, IgA1 found predominantly in the blood IgA2 predominantly found in the body secretion. it is the dominant secretory immunoglobulin to prevent the attachment and invasion of pathogens through mucosal membranes
IgG it is the major class of antibody found in blood of fetus and newborns.,
subclasses of IgG IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4
Classes of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD,
Antibody it is a serum glycoprotein produces by mature B cells(plasma cells)in response to a challenge by an antigen.
Immunoglobulins it is used for all molecules that are known to have specificity for antigens
Antibody It is used to denote one set of Ig.
fx of antibodies 1. Neutralizes infectious agents or their toxic products. 2. they clump insoluble particles in suspension through a process called agglutination. 3. they make a soluble antigen into insoluble precipitate.
B Cell receptors BCR it has low concentration in circulation . it fx as a mediator of many common allergic response. it also defend against large parasite infections
BCR it is designed to initiate inflammatory reaction that attracts eosinophils to the site of parasite infection.
what is the purpose of vaccination The purpose is to induce a long lasting protective immnue response under conditions that will not result in disease in a healthy individual.
clinical manifestations of infection fatigue, malaise, weakness, loss of concentration, fever.
kill vaccine it is a previously virulent microorganism that has been destroyed by chemicals or heat to create a vaccine. eg influenza, polio, Hep A pneumonic plaque.
Attenuated vaccine they are vaccines made from a weakened virus that are alive and maintains their antigenic properties. they cause mild form of the disease in the recipient.
antigenic determinant it is the precise area of the antigen that is recognized by the antibody (T cells)
antigen binding site ti is the part of the antibody that matches the epitope
Type II hypersensitivity reactions it involve the formation of antibodies that attack the body’s own tissues.
Type IV hypersensitivity reaction Type IV reactions are the only hypersensitivity responses mediated by T cells.
An antigen a molecule that can be recognized by the immune system.
major histocompatibility complex it is a set of recognition molecules used to identify whether donor and recipient tissues possess antigens that makes them compactible
Immunogenicity Immunogenicity refers to the ability of an antigen to elicit an immune response. It refers to the ability of an antigen to elicit an immune response.
Immunogen It is an agent or substance that can provoke an immune response or produce immunity.
Immune deficiency It is the failure of the immune of inflammatory response to fx normally resulting in increased susceptibility to infections.
Tolerance It is a state of immunologic control so that teh individual does not make a detrimental immune response against his own cells and tissues.
Sources of pathogen growth Water/moisture, Temperature, pH - Alkaline, Light, Food, Oxygen.
cellular effects of virus Inhibition of host cell DNA, RNA, or protein synthesis Disruption of lysosomal membranes Promotion of apoptosis Fusion of infected, adjacent host cells
cellular effects of virus Alteration of antigenic properties Transformation of host cells into cancerous cells Promotion of secondary bacterial infections
Created by: amonu
 

 



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