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NRN 202 Cancers

CCAC NRN 202 Cancers

What are the two things that occur in cancer? Defective cell proliferation or defective cell differentiation
Explain benign and malignant. Benign does not invade and metastasize to to other tissues
Explain differentiation of cells. Cells become mature and are different that fetal stem cells. They can only perform the function of the cell they have differentiated to.
How are tumors classified? According to anatomic site, histology, and extent of disease.
The anatomic site is from tissue of origin. where do carcinomas originate from? ectoderm (skin and glands)
Explain the TNM classification system. T - tumor size and invasiveness N - lymph node involvement M - metastasis
What is the only diffinitive menas of diagnosing cancer? Biopsy
What are the 7 warning signs of cancer? C-change in bowel or bladder habits A - sore that does not heal U - unusual bleeding T - thickening or lump I - indigestion or difficulty swallowing O - obvious change in wart or mole N - nagging cough or hoarseness
Chemotherapy can cause side effects because it can not decriminate between tumor cells and healthy cells. A common side effect is N/V. How can it be treated? By giving antiemetics prior to the treatment.
Because Chemotherapy is very caustic to tissues, if swelling or redness is seen at the IV site, what should the nurse do? Stop the infusion immediately.
What is Interleukin-2 given for? Platelet growth stimulation
List 3 risk factors for Breast Cancer. Female, age over 50, family history, personal history of breast, colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer, early menarche, late menopause, benign breast disease, first full term pregnancy over age 30, wt. gain and obesity after menopause.
What is the most malignant form of breast cancer? Inflammatory breast cancer
What is another name for breast conservation surgery? Lumpectomy
What is lymphedema? Collection of lymph in soft tissues
When discussing therapies for treatment of cnacer, what is menat by adjuvant? In addition to i.e. chemo and radiation
What is pallative therapy used for? To shrink a tumor or to decrease symptoms from metastatic disease
What is the most important risk factor for lung cancer? Cigarette smoking
Which lobe of the lungs is the site of most lung cancers? Upper
How do most lung cancers metastasize? By direct externsion and via blood and lymph
When do most prostate cancers occur? After age 65
What is a specific characteristic of prostate cancer? Is is androgen-based
What are the screening tools for prostate cancer? DRE (direct rectal exam) and PSA (prostate specific antigen)
What else is PSA used for? Monitoring effectiveness of treatment
Why is a conservative approach of "watchful waiting" often used with prostate cancer? Because it is very slow growing and many who are diagnosed with it also have other disease present.
Created by: JayneAnn