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Abdominal assessment

Prior to an abdominal assessment, what should you have your client do empty their bladder, lay flat with knees slightly flexed and take slow deep breaths to promote relaxation before exam
Sequence of assessment for the abdomen Inspect, Auscultate, Percuss, Palpate
purple discoloration at the flanks indicate bleeding within the abdominal wall
Pale, taut skin may be seen with ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity) usually results from liver failure or liver disease
Dilated veins may be seen with cirrhosis of the liver, obstruction of the inferior vena cava, portal hypertension or ascites
normal findings of Striae (stretch marks) old, silvery, white straie. bluish-pink striae are associated with cushing syndrome.
Bluish or purple discoloration around umbilicus indicates intra-abdominal bleeding
A deviated umbilicus may be caused by pressure from a mass, enlarged organ, hernia, fluid or scar tissue
Keloids are more common in African Americans and Asians
Abdominal contours Flat (-) Scaphoid- (u) Rounded- (n) Distended/protuberant (d)
A bulging in the abdominal wall may indicate hernia
The patient head is slightly lifted while assessing the abdomen this helps identify masses
Vigorous, wide spread pulsation may been seen with abdominal aortic aneurysm (slight pulsation is normal)
With intestinal obstruction, peristaltic waves are incrased and progress in a rippled-like fashion from the ___ to the ___. Left upper quadrant (LUQ) to the right lower quadrant (RLQ)
What is the rate of normal bowel sounds. 5-30 bowel sounds per minute. (intermittent, soft clicks and gurgles)
Hypoactive bowel sounds indicate.. Hyperactive bowel sounds indicate.. Decreased or absent bowel sounds indicate.. Hyperactive-diarrhea, gastroenteritis or early bowel obstruction Hypoactive- diminished bowel motility and caused by abdominal surgery or late bowel obstruction Absent or decreased- requires emergency referral
When a bruit is heard over the abdominal aorta? aneurysm or arterial stenosis
Generalized tympany(high pitched) is usually heard over the abdomen because of air in the stomach and intestines
Hepatomegaly is when the liver span exceeds normal limits (enlarged) is characteristic of liver tumors, cirrhosis, abscess, or vascular engorgement
The normal liver span at the MSL (mid-sternal line) is 4-8 cm
Light palpation depth 1 cm
Deep palpation depth 5-6 cm
The spleen is normally palpable, if the spleen is palpable this may indicate chronic blood disorder, cancer, mononucleosis
Blumberg's sign is when the client has rebound tenderness when he or she perceives sharp, stabbing pain as the examiner releases pressure form the abdomen
Pain in the RLQ during pressure in the LLQ is a positive _____ sign. Rovsing's It suggests acute appendicitis
Polyuria Increased frequency of urine
Oliguria Decreased frequency of urine
Anuria Without urine
Nocturia Getting up in the middle of the night to use to the bathroom (frequent)
Dysuria Painful urination
Incontinence Cant go to the bathroom
Character of abdominal pain & implications Dull & achy Burning, gnawing pressure Colicky (permanent, tight muscles) sharp, knifelike
Referred pain Travels or refers from the primary site and becomes highly localized at the distant site. Example: right neck pain-gallbladder, left shoulder pain-pancreas or spleen
Risk factors for gallbladder women, obesity, smoking, diet
Created by: Jmariez