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Chapter 21

Abdomen

QuestionAnswer
Aneurysm defect or sac formed by dilation in artery wall due to therosclerosis, trauma, or congenital defect
Anorexia loss of appetite for food
Ascites abnormal accumulation of serous fluid within the peritoneal cavity, associated with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, cancer, or portal hypertension
Borborygmi loud gurgling bowel sounds signaling increased motility or hyperperistalsis, occur with early bowel obstruction, gastroenteritis, diarrhea
Bruit blowing, swooshing sound heard through a stethoscope when an artery is partiall occluded
Cecum first or proximal part of large intestine
Cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
Costal margin lower border of rib margin formed by the medial edges of the 8th, 9th, and 10th ribs
Costovertebral Angle angle formed by the 12th rib and the vertebral column on the posterior thorax, overlying the kidney
Diastasis recti midline longitudinal ridge in the abdomen, a separation of abdominal rectus muscles
Dysphagia difficulty swallowing
Epigastrium name of abdominal region between the costal margins
Eructation belching
Hematemesis vomiting blood
Hepatomegaly abnormal enlargement of the liver
Hernia abnormal protrusion of bowel through weakening in abdominal musculature
Inguinal ligament ligament extending from pubic bone to anterior superior iliac spine, forming lower border of abdomen
Linea alba midline tendinous seam joining the abdominal muscles
Melena black, tarry feces caused by digestion of blood in the GI tract
Paralytic ileus complete absence of peristaltic movement that may follow abdominal surgery or complete bowel obstruction
Peritonitis inflammation of peritoneum
Pyloric stenosis congenital narrowing of pyloric sphincter, forming outflow obstruction of stomach
Peritoneal friction rub rough grating sound heard through the stethoscope over the site of peritoneal inflammation
Pyrosis heartburn
Rectus abdominus muscle midline abdominal muscles extending from rib cage to pubic bone
Schaphoid abnormally sunken abdominal muscles as with malnutrition or underweight
Splenomegaly abnormal enlargement of spleen
Striae (linea albicantes) silvery white or pink scar tissue formed by stretching of abdominal skin as with pregnancy or obesity
Suprapubic name of abdominal region just superior to pubic bone
Tympany high-pitched, musical, drumlike percussion note heard when percussing over the stomach and intestine
Viscera internal organs
Umbilicus depression on the abdomen marking site of entry of umbilical cord
Created by: lsthurston