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Nutrition Ch. 10

Nutrition Through the Life Span: Pregnancy & Infancy

A man's nutrition may affect his? fertility
Full nutrient stores BEFORE pregnancy are important? both to conception and to healthy infacnt development
What should a women do for a health pregnancy? Healthy body weight, balanced diet, physically active, med visits, No harmful influences
An underweight women have a high risk of having? an underweight baby
Low birthweight babies are at more risk for? infections
Children bored to obese women are? bigger
Maternal obesity may double to risk for? neural tube defects
Obese women may require drugs? to induce labor or require surgical intervention
Babys to women of not a healthy weight increase risks of? heart defects
Why is it so important to have proper nurition while pregenant? determines whether her uterus will be able to support the growth of a healthy placenta during the first month of gestation
What does the placenta do? Supply depot and waste removal
What is the umbilical cord? the pipeline from the placenta to the fetus
What is the amniotic sac? is surrounds and cradles the fetus, cushoning it with fluids
What does the placenta do? gethers up hormones, nutrients, and protein melcules
The placenta also plays a role in preparing? lactation
What is a newly fertilized ovum called? zygote
It begins as a zygote then becomes a? blastocyst
What attaches itself to uterine wall? blastocyst
What is it called when a blastocyst attaches to wall? implementation
What is a zygote at 6 weeks? embryo
What is a embryo become? fetus
After 8 weeks wat does the fetus have? complete CNS, beating heart, digestive system, fingers, toes, facial features
During the last 7 months the fetus grows? 50x heavier and 20 x longer
How long are pregnancies? 38-42 weeks
What are the 40 weeks of pregnancy divided into? thirds, trimester
What is the critical period? where organs and tissues develop
Early malnutrition? impairs the heart and brain
Later malnutrition? impairs the lungs
The effects of malnutrition during the critical period are? irreversable
What is a high risk pregnancy? a pregnancy characterized by risk factos that make it likely the birth with be surrounded by problems such as premature delivery, difficult birth, retarded grwoth, birth defects, and early infant death
What is low risk pregnancy? a pregnancy characterized by factors that make is likely the birth will be normal and the infant healthy
How do pregnant women meet extra energy demands? eat more, reduce their activity, some store less of their food energy
A pregnant women should eat more? nutrient dense food
What is the role are carbs in pregnancy? to fuel the brain and spare proten needed for fetal production
How much more protein should a pregnant women consume? 25 more grams per day
You should not take protein ________ during pregnancy? supplements
The essential fatty acids are important to? growth and development of the fetus
What does the brain need to function, and grow? omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids
What are the vitamins in cell reproduction? folate, vit. B12
How much folate should be consumed during pregnancy? 600 mcg
What does the neural tube develop? brain and spinal cord
What is a neural tube defect? when the tube fails to close
What is anencephaly? where the neural tube fails to close and the brain doesn't develop
What is spina bifida? Where the spinal cord and backbone do not develop
Don't eat what while pregnant? HOTDOG
What is the normal birth weight? 7-8 lbs
Spina bifida is usually associated with? paralysis
To reduce risk of neural tube defects a women should consume how much folate if they are at risk for pregnancy? 400 mcg folic acid
Folic acid supplements are more easily? absorbed
High doses of folate make it difficult to find a? B12 deficiency
Quantities of 1 milligram or more of folate require? a prescription
Insufficient intakes of ______ ________ ________ may produce abnormal fetal bone development? Ca, Phosphorus, and Mg
Intestinal absorption of Ca _____ during pregnancy? doubles
The final weeks of pregnancy how much Ca is tranferred to the fetus? 300 mg
When does mineralization of fetus's teech begin? 5 months
What helps meneralize fetus's teeth? flouride
Why is there an increase of iron in the body while pregnant? no period
How many mg of iron do you need during 2nd and 3rd trimester? 30 mg from supplements
What to prenatal vitamins include? folate, iron, calcium
Who benefits from multivitamin mineral supplements during pregnancy? not enough eating, those carrying twins or tiplets, smoke, alcohol or drug users
What does WIC do? provides vouchers redeemable for futritious foods, nutrition education, and referrals to health and socal services to low income pregnant and lactating women and their children
A sudden weight gain may indicate the onset of? preeclampsia
Weight a pregnant women gains is nearly all _____ tissue? lean
Weight gain is essential for? a healthy pregnancy
What helps to determine appropriate weight gain? prepregnancy BMI, her own nutrient needs, the number of fetuses she is carrying to determine appropriate weight gain
What can harm the baby during physical activity? dehydration and high body temp
What are food aversions? strong desires to avoid particular foods
What is pica? craving weird food, maybe not food, chalk, tp
Pica is associated with? iron deficiency
Why do women have morning sickness? hormonal changes taking place early in pregnancy
Gestational diabetes causes infant? sickness or death
What are the 2 classifications of hypertension during pregnancy? chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension
When does gestational hypertension occur? 20th week
Hypertension increases the risk of? preeclampsia
What does high blood pressure increase the risk of? low birth weight, or the placenta separating from the wall
What is preeclampsia? high blood pressure but also by protein in the urince
Preeclampsia affects? all organs
If preeclampsia progresses it causes? seizures
When seizures occur with preeclampsia it is then called? eclampsia
How do you treat eclampsia? regulate blood pressure and preventing seizures
Smoking during pregnancy can cause? fetal chromosomes
Smoking restricts? the blood supply to the growing fetus and so it limits the delivery of oxygan and nutrients a
Cigarette smoking druing pregnancy can cause? SIDS
Even if you don't smoke what can still affect your fetus? environmental tobacco smoke
Pregnant women should stay away from? herbal products
What do drugs cause in the fetus? CNS damage
What can lead and mercury exposure do to fetus? impaired mental and psychomotor development
What will help defend against lead contamination? Ca
Pregnant women should eat fish? yes a little bit
What is listeriosis? serious foodborne infection that can cause severe brain infection or death in a fetus, found in soil and water
What can listeriosis cause? cause miscarriage, still birth, severe brain damage
What are the symptoms of listeriosis? fever, vomiting, diharrhea
What can detect listeriosis? blood test
What vitamin is dangerous to the fetus? Vit A
Fetus's can have a limited ability to metabolize what? caffeine
What can alcohol consumption cause? brain damage, retardation, facial abnormalities, vision abnormalities
What are alchol symptoms called? fetal alcohol spectrus disorder and Fetal alcohol syndrom
What is the biggest causes of mental retardation? alcohol
Mental prob associated with alcohol are called? alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder
What are physical malformations from alcohol called? alcohol related birth defects
The rate of still births, preterm births and low birthweight are high for? teenagers
How long should you breast feed? 12 months
How long should you exclusive breastfeed? 6 months
Breasfeed with complementary foods for at least? 12 months
How much milk does a nursing women produce a day? 25 oz
while breastfeeding a women should consume how much more k calories? 330
How long doe sit usually take to get to prepregnancy weight? 6 months
Gradual weight loss is safe and does not effect? milk output
Nutritional deprivation of the mother reduces the quantity? not the quality
what are you doing? i know your sexy. i wish we was kissing and you was smiling.. i hope my money comes so we can have a good v-day
What vitamins in breast milk are more likely to decline? B6, B12, A, D
What can alter the flavor of breast milk? strong and spicy flavors
How can alcohol affect breast milk? affects production, composition, and ejection
Lactating women who smoke produce? less milk, milk with lower fat contant
If you have HIV you should not? breast feed
An infant grows faster in the _______ ________ than any other time? first year
An infants birthweight triples in? one year
T or F: basal metabolic rate is higher in babies? T
How many k calories to infants need? 1000
Breast fed infants need to eat ______ than bottle fed? more
how many breast feedings a day? 8-12
How long should you breast feed? 10-15 min
What stimulates lactation? sucking
What enhances Ca absorption? lactose
Breast milk also includes? oligosaccharides
What do oligosaccharides do? protect the infant from infections by preventing the binding of pathogens to the infant's intestinal cells
The protein in breast milk is largely? alpha lactalbumin
What provides energy to an infant in breast milk? lipid
What vitamin is not in breast milk? vit D
Vit D is more likely in infants that? that are not exposed to sunlight daily, have dark pigminted skin, recieves milk without vit D supplementation
What are possible supplements for infants? Vit D, Iron, and Fluoride
What is given to infants at birth to prevent bleeding? Vit K
Breast milk offers? immunological protection
Break milk is? sterile
What do the breasts produce after delivery? colostrum
What is colostrum? a premilk substance containing mostly serum with antibodies and WBC
What do oligosaccharides do? prevent pathogens from binding to intestinal cells
What is bifidum factors? they favor the growth of the friendly bacterium lactobacillus bifidus in the infants digestive tract
What does lactoferrin do? its an iron binding protien that keeps bacteria from getting the iron they need to grow, helps absorb iron into the infant's bloodstream
What does lactadherin do? its a protien in breast milk that binds to and inhibits replication of the virus that causes mort infant diarrhea
Breast fed infants have lower? BP and lower blood cholesterol
Protein in cows milk stresses? the kidneys
Special formulas have been designed to meet the dietary needs of infants with conditions like? prematurity or inherited diseases
Infants allergic to milk can drink formulas based on? soy protein
Infant formulas contain no? protective antibodies
How do you prevent nursing bottle tooth decay? no bottle to bed with child
What kind of milk to infants need after breastfeeding? whole milk
in children lower that 6 months of age that have cow's milk will have? intestinal bleeding
Cow's milk is poor in? iron
In the beginning infants intestines cannot digest? starch
When do infants accept complementary food? 4-6 months
What are the 3 considerations about the infants readiness to handle different foods? infant's nutrient needs, the infants physical rediness, and the need to detect and control allergic reactions
What are the nutrients that are needed first? iron and vit c
When does the ability to swallow solid food develop? 4-6 months
You should introduce foods? one at a time to prevent allergies
Infant foods should be selected to provide? variety, balance, and moderation
By one year babies are ? drinking from a cup and eating many of the same foods
Created by: alicia.rennaker
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