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mythology

exam 1

QuestionAnswer
myth story with a plot and conflict, tale
traditional to hand over or down person to person orally- helps culture understand its own culture (how to behave and not to behave)
mythos story or myth - orally transmitted
logos an account of something- has an explanation for something-true
variant differing versions of a story
etiological an assignment of causes or origins to stories- tells the start or cause of something
Euhemerus wanted to have reasonable explanation to what gods are- they are men who did something good for people and are worshipped and become gods after they die.
Ovid Roman poet- wrote Metamorphosis
Metamorphosis story of transformation- epic poem by ovid
chaos 4 elements- earth fire water air - space in which creation takes place
Gaia mother goddess- Earth- produces Tartarous and makes weapons
Tartarous some kind of underworld
Eros face of desire
Hesiod earliest person to try and organize myths
cosmogony tells us about the earth of cosmos
muses goddesses of the arts- live on mt. hellicon - daughters of Zeus - tells what is what, wat wil be, and what has been- 9 muses
Ouranos created by Gaia- sky god- him and Gaia and have many children- had sex with night and produced hundred handed monster- pushes his kids down to earth when they are born
Cronos youngest son of Gaia and Ouranos- arch ddeciever- hates his father- chops off fathers genitals because he had sex with night - swallows Rheias babies whole when they are born
Aphrodite created by Ouranos genitals - always naked- goddess of sexual desire- came out of Cytrus (sea)
Theogony birth of the gods
Chimaira has 3 heads- a lion, goat, and serpent- breathes fire
Medousa famous gorgon-mortal-persius kills her by cutting off her head- snaked hair
Chrysaor Medousas kid- comes out of her when her head gets cut off- name means golden sword
Pegasos medusas kid - winged horse- lives in zeus' house- brings lightning and thunder
Cerberos three headed guard dog
Hydra many heads-becomes river that gods swear by
styx helps zeus in struggle against Titans
Titans children of Ouranos and Ghia- means over reachers in greek
Rheia cronos' sister- ghia and ouranos' daughter- hooks up with cronos- new earth goddess- cronos swallows her babies whole when thye are born- gives birth to zeus and saves him by giving a rock to ouranos to swallow instead of the baby
crete where zeus is hidden
Titanomachy battle against the titans- zeus fights cronos
hundred handers children of ouranos- live underground- help zeus in battle
10 year battle zeus and his siblings( hundred handers) fight cronos adn his sibilings- 100 arms and 50 heads zeus gives his team a pep talk and makes the olympians mad- 300 stones thrown and cronos and his friends are driven under the earth- Zeus is leader
Lycaon king of arcadia- zeus introduces himself as a human then admits hes a god
Deucalion survived flood-son of prometheus
Pyrrha survived flood- daughter of epimetheus- and pandora
Pandora "lovely evil"name means "gift of all the gods"--opened box holding all miseries of the world but keeps hope in the box--too old to reproduce- throws stones over shoulder to create children- given to mortal men as torture
Flood (ovid) roman source greek dont have flood- destroys everyone, floods in every major religion except greek
curetes young men who stand around Zeus and bang on shields when he cries so cronos cant find him or hear him
Cyvele great mother goddess
Prometheus very smart-trickster- likes human men- makes men out of clay and water- tries to trick Zeus and give him fat from the Ox that he sacrificed- Zeus finds out and withholds fire from mortal men- hides firs, Zeus gets mad and gives the men Pandora as torture
Prometheus' Story gives men fire, Zeus takes it away--tortured and chained to a tree and eagles come every day adn eat his liver- his liver grows back daily and he is tortured everyday
Epimetheus prometheus' brother- dumb and slow--accepts gift from Zeus
Atlas holds up sky near Morocco
Iapetus father of prometheus, epimetheus, and atlas- Titan
Athena (Minerva) daughter of Zeus and Metis(born out of Zeus' head)- virgin goddess- wears a helmet, armor, wears aegis, owl, goddess of warefare, reason, intelligence, craft, defender of cities, and protector of heroes- her temple is the parthenon
Athenas story in competition with arachne over who the best weaver was- (women weave) arachne weaves a picture of gods being unfaithful (21 scenes), Athena wins and is jealous of arachne. Arachne tries to kill herself, athena turns arachne into a spider
Aphrodite (Venus) goddess of love and sexual desire, fertility, cyprus- comes from foam of ouranos' genitals or from Zeus and Dione- has many children; Eros(w/ Ares), Aeneas(w/ Anchises)- married to Hephaistos- nude, has shield
Hephaistas (Vulcan) craft god- parents Hera and Zeus, Hera treats him bad throws him off a mountain, has a limp (bad leg) not appealing- many children- blacksmith, artisan, sculptor, metals, fire, volcanos, lame, anvil, tongs, hammer
Hephaistas' story drops metal chain on Aphrodite and Ares catching them in an affair while their having sex- all gods come in and laugh at them
Daphne love of Apollo
Apollo son of Zeus and Leto- children: Asclepius (god of medicine and healing, staff, intwined with snake)- light, sun, truth, prophecy, archery, medicine, healing, music, poetry, art, palm, laurel, lyre, appears as a beardless youth, snake, nude
Apollo's story kills python, sanctuary at Delphi, Daphne and the laurel, musical contest with Marsyas. Marsyas skinned alive by Apollo(hair like woman, tied back)
Demeter(Ceres) goddess of grain and fertility- daughter of Cronos and Rhea- many children including Persephone (w/ Zeus)- dressed modestly, cornucopia, associated w/ seasons, earth
Demeter's story kidnapping of persephone- hades takes her to hades- searches for her everywhere and ends up in Elusis- mourns over her daughter so no plants grow and earth is not productive--finds her and persephone is forced to live in underworld for some time as wife
Artemis(Diana) goddess of hunting, wild animals, child birth, moon, appears as hunter with bows and arrows- daughter of Zeus and Leto (twin of Apollo) no children, virgin goddess- Protective of virginity looks liek shes going hunting
Hestia(Vesta) daughter of cronos and Rhea- eternal virgin- goddess of hearth(fireplace)- depicted in cloak and veil, modestly dressed
Leto Mother of Apollo and Artemis(twins) treated bad by Zeus' wife Hera beacuse she slept with him- Hera doesnt let her give birth so she searches and lands in Delos where she gives birth clutching a palm tree alone
Asclepius god of medicine, son of Apollo
Delphi sanctuary to god Apollo- where he kills a snake prized by Hera, and establishes place as his own, people g to hear their auricle
Pythia priestess of Apollo- sat on a rock, said anything she said was coming from Apollo, spoke the future, talking in riddles
omphalosis bellybutton of the earth- center of earth, closer to gods
Bacche wrote 88 plays
Bacchanalia roman celebration, big party(orgy) that was banned by romans because too many people were getting murdered or raped
Euripides competed in Dionysos, kept losing because he refused to cater to fancies of judges
Semele mother of Dionysos, lives in Thebes where bacchi takes place (possibly killed by Zeus)
Agave semeles sister
Cadmus ruler of Thebes- grandfather of Pentheus adn Dionysus
Thebes invonitia? place of worship to Dionysus- chief city in central greece
Pentheus son of Agave, next in line to be king of Thebes, becomes wine syre, fortune teller, old man
Dionysus and Penthesus' story women of thebes go into wild to worship dionysus, leave the city of men, cadmus and tiresus dont fully believe dionysus is a god but worship him anyways- Pentheus is a nonbeliever and makes a rile that anyone who comes down adn worships dionysus
d and p story worship dionysus and get locked up, stranger comes, stragne things happen (earthquakes) Dionysus convinces pentheus to go to woods to see what girls are doing, girls think hes a wild animal, hes killed by his mother (dionysus makes women do it)
Ares(Mars) god of war, especially the destructive frenzy of war, sometimes a chariot, bronze armor, spear-son of Zeus and Hera- many children(w/ aphrodite and mortals)
Hermes(Mercury) son of Zeus and Maia, many children including Pan(like nature god), hermaphroditus, Priapus, adn Eros(w/ aphrodite)--herald, travelers thieves, shepards, boundries, psyochpompus, winged sandals, cadceus(pole with 2 circles on top), travelers cap, tortoise
psychopompus to lead sould to the underworld
herms boundry markers, either has a head on it of phalus--supposed to protect property from evil
Poseidon(Neptune) son of cronos and rhea, man children, --older, bearded,sea horses, hearthquakes, dolphin, trident!, --against the trojans, makes it very difficult for odysseus to get home, competed with athena to be patron god of athens but lost
Dionysus (Bacchus) son of Zeus and Semele--god of wine, growth of wine(viticulture), inspires ritual madness and estacy, god of mystery religion rites, releases people temporarily from their cares, followed/accommpanied by his worshipers,
Dionysus satyrs and mainads, bull, serpant, grapes, leopard skin, thyrsus, chariot drawn by panthers (strange birth, semele killed by zeus, taken out of her and sewn to zeus' thigh)
manids and satyrs female followers on dionysus(sexual also called bacchi) carry thyrus(stick with acorn on top) long hair--satyrs rape manids
Zeus(Jupiter) sky god and in power-parents are cronos are rhea- children with young olympian gods and many mortals--lightning bolt, beard, eagle, justice, weather, sky gods, hidden in crete by Rhea so cronos didnt eat him- titanomachy-sends flood to earth
zeus worshipped at olympia- liked boys and girls-fell in love with a boy named Ganymne-kidnapped and brought to olympus- becomes cupbearer (gives wine) to gods of olympus
Hera(Juno) queen of the gods, goddess for women adn marriage, protector of cities, cow and peacock--zeus' wife-parents are cronos and rhea- children: ares(w/ Zeus) war god, and hephastus
Arachne (Minerva) turned into spider when loses weaving contest with athena--weaves tapestry of gods being unfaithful
Golden Age best time for man and earliest--man living with god--no need for men to work or do labor, people didnt grow old but still died, they turned into spirits that roamed the world (Pre-Pandora)
Silver Age second best time for man--dumb children too 100 years to grow up --humans didnt sacrifice to gods in this age so they were killed off young--death=blessed mortals not spirits
Bronze Age third best time for man--war like time--laborous, farming, killed each other off (crazy stuff going on)
Age of Heroes Hesoid- better age than bronze-demi-gods, noble wars (Thieves, Troy) great to have fought for noble reasons--death=isle of the blessed which is apart from other underworld scenarios--short lived
Iron Age Hesiod wishes to ave died than lived in it --parents and kids, generations, sibilings all fighting, people swear oaths all the time and dont care to uphold them--nothing left to us but evil
Works and Days Hesoids long poem about farming-makes his brother sound like a good greek farmer--story about pandora--strife (2 kinds) bad=eris, good kind competition, good work ethic and spirit of competition
Eris god/goddess of strife, bad/leads to war and fighting.
Created by: dmj95