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Step 2: Cardio 9

Cardio 9

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 points of mixing in fetal circulation? Ductus arteriosus, Foramen ovale, Ductus venosus
What point in the fetal circulation has the most O2? Umbilical vein
What is the 5 step process of changes in fetal to neonatal circulation? 1. Lung expansion->raised pulm art pressure 2. low PGE2 levels->ductus art. closure 3. clamped umbilicus-> raised vascular resistance 4. raised resistance->ductus venous closure 5. increased LA pressure (lowered RA pressure)->foramen ovale closure
What is the most common type of congenital heart defects? VSD
What heart sound changes are heard in VSD? Pansystolic murmur @ LLSB, loud S2, thrill
How do you treat a small VSD vs. a large VSD? Small= monitor (will likely close by 10yo). Large= monitor nutrition, CHF (Rx ACEi, diuretics, digoxin), flu vaccine, surgery if still sick
What is the difference in S2 sound between ASD and VSD? ASD= fixed split S2. VSD= loud S2
In ASD pt, you give ______ prophylaxis ABx
ASD pt's will often have large _______ artery markings Pulm arteries
What happens if ASD goes untreated? L->R shunt eventually becomes R->L (Eisenmenger's Syndrome)
How do you treat PDA? Indomethacin. (come IN and CLOSE the door)
What test is used to Dx PDA? Echo
If a pt has TGA, what other congenital defects can help them survive? VSD or PDA(->give PGE2 to these neonates to keep PDA open)
What syndromes have predilection for causing TGA? Apert's, Down, cri-du-chat, trisomy 13/18
Boot-shaped heart occurs in what 2 cong heart defects? Truncus Arteriosus + Tet of Fallot
Endocardial cushion defect is found in what disorder? Down Syndrome
What are the 4 components of Tetrology of Fallot? VSD, RV outflow obstruction, RVH, overriding Aorta
What is unique about S2 in Tetralogy of Fallot? There is a single S2 (no split)
Ebstein's anomaly is ass. w/ _________ use. It causes a hypoplastic _______, along with abnormal _________ valve. Lithium use. Right Ventricle. Tricuspid.
Ebstein's anomaly has increased risk of SVT or WPW because of ________________ dilated RA
Created by: jsad