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Nutrition Ch. 9

Water & Minerals ATI Pg. 9

Water binds with what in the body? minerals
Water is how much weight in an adult? 60%
What Carries nutrient and waste products throughout the body? water
What maintains the structure of large molecules such as proteins and glycogen? Water
Water participates in? metabolic reactions
Water serves as the solvent for? minerals, vitamins, amino acids, glucose, and many other small molecules
Water helps maintain? blood volume
How does water effect temp? regulates temperature
What acts as a lubricant and cushion around joints and inside the eye, spinal cord, and amniotic sac? Water
The body actively regulates? water balance
What are water imbalances? Dehydration and water intoxication
Thrist is finely adjusted to ensure that water intakes? meets body's needs
What happens when the body looses water but not salt? The mouth is dry and the hypothalamus initiates drinking
What are symptoms of Water intoxication? headache, confusion, convulsions, and even death in extreme cases
What does drinking excess water do? dilutes sodium concentration and contributes to hyponatremia
Water excretion is regulated by? brain and kidneys
What happens when the blood salt is too low or becomes diluted? Pituitary gland causes the release of antidiuretic hormore
If too much water is lost from the body what fall? blood volume and blood pressure
What BP and BV falls what secretes an enzyme? kidneys
What enzyme is secreted by the kidney? aldosterone (causes kidneys to retain water)
The body must excrete how much urine a day? 500 ml
Whatis the water excretes from all parts of the body?how much? 21/2 liters
What do water needs depend on? foods a person eats, the environmental temp and humidity,activity
A person who expends 2000kcalories a day needs how much water? 2-3 liters
Caffine is a mild? diurectic (makes you pee)
What happens when mineral salts dissove in water? they seperate into charged particles called ions
A salt that dissociated in water is an? electrolyte
Body fluids that contain water and dissociated salts are called? electrolyte solutions
What moves salts around? cells
The movement of salts determine where fluids go in the body because? water follows salt
What is the cell membrane moves ions into and out of the cells? proteins
What is outside the cell? sodium and chloride
What is inside the cell? potassium
The body's electrolytes remain? constant
The urinay electrolytes? fluctuate
What causes F&E imbalances? Vomiting and diarrhea, sweating, fever, burns, wounds
What do the ions do? help maintain water balance but also regulate the acidity of its fluids
Electrolyte mixes in the body fluids protect the body against changes in acidity by using? buffers
what is the body's first line of defence against changes in the fluid acid base balance? buffer system
What are the 2 types of minerals? major and trace
What are the cheif minerals of bone? calcium and phosphorus
Why are major minerals major? because they are present and needed in larger amounts in the body
what are critical to nerve transmission and muscle contraction? sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium
What two minerals are involved in energy metabolism? phosphorus and magnesium
What do calcium, phosphorus and magnesium contribute to? bone structure
What does sulfer do? determines the shape of proteins
What are major minerals? Ca, Cl, Mg, phosphorus, k, Na, and sulfer
What are trace minerals? Arsenic, boron, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, slenium, silicon, vanadium, zinc
What is the principal electrolyte in extracellular fluid? Na
To much sodium = High blood pressure
How much Na per day? 2300 mg 1 tsp
How much Na do people usually consume? 3400 mg
High salt correlate with high rates of? hypertension, heart disease, and cerebral hemmorhage
Na increases? blood pressure
What diet lowers BP? DASH
DASH emphasizes? fruits, vegies, whole grain, nuts, poultry reduced red meat, butter
What is chloride? major negative ion in extracellular fluids
Chloride is critical to maintaining? fluid, electrolyte, and acid base balances in the body
Chloride is part of? hydrochloric acid
What does hydrochloric acid maintain? acidity of gastric fluids
What is a major source of chloride? salt
What is the principal positively charged ion inside the body cells? Potassium
What is the major role of potassium? maintaing F&E balance and cell integrity
Potassium is also critical in? keeping the heartbeat steady
What is potassium deficiency is characterized by? increase in blood pressure, salt sensitivity, kidney stones, and bone turnover, irregular heartbeats, muscle weakness and glucose intolerance
Potassium deficiency results from what meds? diurectics, steroids, and cathartics
How does toxicity of potassium occur? increase potassium salts, supplements, or medications
What are rich sources of potassium? anything FRESH
What is the most abundant mineral in the body? Ca
What does Ca do in the bones? part of bone structure, serves as a calcium bank available to the body fluids if they drop
Bones constanstly gain and lose minerals this is called? remodeling
How long are bones activly growing and modifying? age 20
When does peak bone mass development occur? 12-30
From age 30-40 bone loss? exceeds bone formation
What regulates the transport of ions accross cell membranes and is particularly important in nerve transmission? Ca
Ca helps maintain normal? blood pressure, and blood clotting
What is essential to muscle contraction? Ca
What allows secretion of hormones, digestive enzymes, and neurotransmitters? Ca
When Ca is high what does the body do? system of hormones and Vit. D cause it to go into bone
When Ca falls what where does the body act? Small intestine absorbs more, Bones release more, the kidneys excrete Ca
Even when there is a calcium dificiency the blood calcium? remains normal
Blood calcium changes only in response? abnormal regulatory control
Blood calcium above normal causes? calcium rigor (muslce flex and cannot relax)
Blood calcium below normal causes? calcium tetany (uncontrolled muscle)
What are Ca conditions caused by? lack of Vit. D or by abnormal concentrations of the hormones
What are bone mass peaks? age 30
After menopause women lose how much bone mass? 15%
What 2 kinds of factors contribute to osteoperosis? genetic and environmental
Active bones are ______ then sedentary bones? denser
Ca may protect against? hypertension
DASH diets are rich in? Ca, K, and Mg
What are calcium recommendation during adolescents? 1300 mg
Through age 19-50 recommendations are? 1000 mg
Recommendations over 50 are? 1200 mg
Ca is most abundant in? Milk
Cup of milk = 300 mg Ca
What vegies are good in calcium? mustard greens, kale, parsley, water cress
What foods contain binders that prevent Ca absorption? green leafy
How doe sthe body regulate its absorption of Ca? by altering preoduction of calcium binding protein
What is the second most abundant mineral? Phosphorus
What does phosphorus do? bind with calcium in bones and teeth
Phosphorus is part of? DNA and RNA
Phospholipids help transport? other lipids in the blood
Phosphorus also plays many key roles in? transfor of energy
What is the best source of phosphorus? animal protein
What barely qualifies as a major mineral? Magnesium
How much Mg is in the bone? 1/2
Mg is critical to the operation of? hundreds of enzymes
Mg helps muscles? relax
Mg deficiency can result from? vomiting, diarrhea, alcohol abuse, or protein malnutirtion
Mg Deficiency is though to cause? hallucinations
How does toxicity of Mg occur? supplement or Mg salts
What does hard water have in it? Mg. and Ca.
What are Mg rich foods? leafy vegies, nut, legumes, whole grain, cereals, seafood, chocolate, and cocoa
Sulfar exists in? food ans water
They body requires sulfate for? synthesis of many important sulfer contain compounds
What helps to shape strands of protein? sulfer containing amino acids
How many trace minerals are there? 9
Every cells plant and animal contains? iron
Most of the iron in the body is on? hemoglobin and myoglobin (help transport oxygen)
Iron is important for? cells to generate energy and iron makes new cells, amnio acids, hormones and neurotransmitters
Who saves iron? liver
What can cause big iron loss? bleeding
What captures iron and holds it in reserve? a special protein
What transters iron to tissues? transferrin
What is the most common nutrient deficiency? iron deficiency
Iron deficiency is most common in? obesity
Why are women more prone to iron deficiency? mentsral
Iron deficiency happens in? stages
What is the first stage of iron deficiency? iron stores diminish, ferritin and iron storing protein
What is used to assess iron status? measure of serum ferritin
What is the second stage of iron deficiency? decrease in trasport of iron, levels of serum iron falls, and the levels of iron carrying protein transferrin increases
more tranferrin = less iron
What is transferrin saturation? the % of transferrin that is saturated in iron
What is the third stage of iron deficiency? lack of iron limits hemoglobin production
Erythrocyte protoporphyric does what in the third stage? begins to accumulate as hemoglobin and hematocrit values decline
What are tets most commonly used in evaluating iron status? Homoglobin and hematocrit
Iron dificiency and iron deficiency anemia are not? the same thing
What is iron deficiency? depleted body iron stores without regard to the degree of depletion or to the presence of anemia
What is iron deficiency anemia? severe depletion of iron stores that results in a low hemoglobin concentration
What do blood cells look like in anema? RBC are pale and small (can't carry enough oxygen)
What kind of skin does a person with anemia have? pale skin
What are the early signs of anemia? energy metabolism is impaired and neurotransmitter synthesis is altered
What happen to children with deprived iron? irritable, restless, and unable to pay attention
What is pica? the craving for and consumption of ice, chalk, starch and other nonfood substances
With Iron symptoms make sure no to? take supplements unless you know
How does the body protect itself against iron overload? setting up a block in the intestinal cells
With is hemochromatosis? iron overload
What causes hemochromatosis? genetic failure to provent unneeded iron in the diet from being absorped
What are S&S of iron overload? apathy, lethargy, and fatigue
Iron overdose is characterized by? tissue damage
Iron overload is more common in ? men
Rapid ingestion of iron can cause? death
how much iron should you get a day? 6-7mg
What are the two forms of iron in food? heme iron, nonheme iron
Heme iron is most? absorbable
Heme iron is bound to? hemeglobin and myglobin in meat, poultry, and fish
Where is nonheme found? meats and plant foods
Most iron that ppl consume is? non heme iron
What enhances iron absorption? MFP factor and Vit. C
What contains MFP factor? meat, fish, poultry
What at meal doubles or triples non heme iron absorption? Vit c
What impair absorption of iron? tannins of tea and coffee, calcium in milk and the phytates that are in fiber
Where do zinc requiring enzymes perform? eyes, liver, kidneys, muscles, skin, bones
Zinc works with the enzyme that makes? genetic materia, manufacture heme, digest food, metabolize carb, protein and fat
Extra zinc is held where? intestinal cells
What is zinc's main trasport vehicle? albumin
Zinc deficiency is marked by? dwarfism or severe growth retardation, arrested sexual matruation
What does zinc dificiecy affect? immune function, loss of appetite and while preg it may lead to growth and development disorders
Pregnant teens need what for growth? zinc
What enhances zinc absorption? protein
What does a large intake of zinc cause? copper dificiency anemia
large intake of zinc can cause? diarrhea, headaches, exhaustion
How much zinc should you have? 40 mg
Where is zinc high? shellfish, meat and poultry
Does breast milk have alot of zinc? yes
What is an essential trace minderal that functions as an antioxidant nurtient Selenium
What are selenium containing enzymes for? the proper functioning of the iodine containing thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism
Selenium may prevent? cancer
Selenium deficiency is associated with? heart disease in children
What is the selenium dificiency heart disease called? keshan disease
What does selenium toxicity causes? vomiting, diarrhea, loss of hair and nails and lesions of the skin and nervous system
What is selenium in? shellfish, meats, vegies, whole grains
What are indispensible to life? iodine ion
Iodide is an integral part of the? thyroid hormones (regulates body temp, metabolic rate, reproduction, growth, and the making of blood cells)
What happen when the iodide concentration in the blood is low? thyroid gland enlarge until it is visible (called a goiter)
Iodine refers to? nutrients in food
Iodide refers to? iodine in the body
What is goitrogen? antithyroid substance
A severe iodine dificiency druing pregnancy causes extreme mental and physical retardation known as? cretinism
Excessive intakes of inodine can ? enlarge thyroid gland
How much iodine should be consumed? 150 mcg
What is the world's major sourse of iodine? ocean
How much copper does the body contain? 100 mg
What is the primary function of copper? serve as a constituent of enzymes
What do copper containing enzymes do? catalyze the formation of hemoglobin, manufacture protein, assist in wound healing, help maintain sheaths around nerve fibers
What is the primary function of copper? Help cells use iron
How much copper should we consume? 900 mcg
What are sources of copper? legumes, grains, seafood, nut, seeds
How much manganese is in the body? 20 mg
What does manganese do? facilitates dozens of different metabolic processes
What happens if you have too much manganses? brain disease
How much manganese should you consume? 11mg
What foods have manganese? nuts, whole grain, and leafy vegies
What does flouride form? fluorapatite
what does fluorapatite do? makes bones and teeth stronger
What may have floride in them? tea and fish
Too much fluoride causes? fluorosis
What is chromium? an essential mineral that participates in carb and lipid metabolism
What does chromium do? enhances activity of insulin
When chromium is lacking what happenS? diabetes like condition
What are the best sources of chromium? liver, yeast, grains, nuts and cheese
What does molybdenum do? functions as a working part of several metal containing enzymes, some of which are gieat proteins
Nickel is important for? body tissues
Silicon is important for? the formation of bones and ollagen
Boron influences? the activity of many enzymes and play a key role in bone health, immune response
What is important in small amount even though its deadly? arsenic
Minerals are divided into? major and trace
Created by: alicia.rennaker