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Step 2: Cardio 8

Cardio 8

What is the most common location of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)? Below Renal arteries
What is the major risk factor for AAA? Smoking (tobacco use)
Normal size of Abd Aorta is <2.5cm
Best imaging technique to visualize AAA? U/S
Smokers age ___ to ___ should get AAA screening U/S 65 to 75 (males)
AAA should be surgically repaired if >___cm, or if increasing by more than ___cm in 6months, or if symptomatic 5.5cm+ OR if increasing by 0.5cm every 6m
Prime risk factor for Aortic dissection? HTN
What is the #1 thing to do in case of suspected aortic dissection? Which type req. surical intervention, which type req. medical intervetion? Stabilize BP! (use B-blockers or nitrates). Type A (ascending aorta) require surgery. Type B (descending aorta) are Rx'd medically.
Renal Art stenosis: MCC in <25yo, MCC in >50yo? <25yo = fibromuscular dysplasia; >50yo = ATH
What to give in place of OCPs in a HTN pt? progestin-only pills/injection<--(medroxy-progest)
3 Features of "hyperdynamic" Septic shock? increased CO (d/t hyperdynamic circ), low TPR + RA/LA pressure, normal O2 levels (d/t sufficient blood flow b/c of hyperdynamic circ)
What 3 tests are done in pt suspected of having PVD? What prophylactic test is done afterward? 3 tests: Ankle-Brachial Index (<1 is bad), Duplex or Doppler of extremity, Arteriogram of extremity. Extra test to do is Cardiac stress test (to r/o CAD since many PVD pt's have it)
Stab would pt developing AV fistula will have the following findings: ___preload, ____pulse, _____ of LV. increased preload, strong pulse, and hypertrophy of LV. (also, flushing/warm skin)
What are the 4 common sites of DVT (in descending order)? calf, femoral, popliteal, iliac
What are the 3 components of Virschows Triad of DVT? blood stasis, hypercoagulability, vascular damage
What test is done to rule OUT DVT (sens)? What test is then done to rule IN DVT (spec)? 1. d-Dimers 2. USG +/- contrast venography
Rx of DVT: What is medical Rx? What is physical Rx? Med: LMWH initially, warfarin for long-term. Phys: leg elevation, IVC filter if anti-coag are c/i
Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN): 3 facts 1. affects 3 systems- kidney, heart, GI 2. assoc with hep B/C 3. angiography shows multiple aneurysms
Temporal Arteritis: 3 facts 1. half of pt's also have polymyalgia rheumatica 2. if suspected, don't wait for Bx results..start Rx. 3. Rx= prednisone (1-2m, taper off), ASA to lower blindness risk, vitD/Ca to counteract prednisone affects on bone, optho f/u
Takayasu Arteritis: 3 facts 1. aka pulseless dz 2. affects Asian women 40yo+ 3. Rx= steroids
Churg Strauss dz: 3 facts 1. aka Allergic arteritis 2. p-ANCA+, eosinophilia 3. can cause mononeuropathy
Henloch Schoenlin Purpura: 3 facts 1.IgA-complex mediates 2. Hx of recent URI, abd pain, kidney dz 3. purpura and kidneys show IgA deposits
The Dx of Kawasaki Dz is made by 104F+ fever for 5 days + 4/5 of CRASH Sx: C- conjunctivitis R- truncal rash A- Adenopathy (cervical) S- Strawberry tongue H- hands/feet desquamation
Rx of Kawasaki Dz? IVIG, ASA (high dose), NO STEROIDS, Echo at beginning and 6w later.
Created by: jsad