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Study Guide

Micro Exam 3

opportunistic pathogen can cause disease when the host's defenses are compromised or when they b/c established in a part of the body not known to them
2 examples of opportunistic pathogens are candida albicans and pseudomonas
nosocomial infections are not present upon admission to a hospital but are incurred during treatment there
5 major symptoms of inflammation fever, redness, swelling, pain, loss of function
exotoxins that lyse RBC's are called hemolysins
what host protein maintains a low availability of iron in the body? transferrin
two phagocytic cell types neutrophils & macrophages
immunogloblin produced during the primary response IgM
which type of vaccine has a capsular polysaccharide linked to a protein antigen? conjugated
which bacterial toxin produces only gram negative bacteria? Endotoxin
how do Salk and Sabin polio vaccines differ? Salk;injectable (IPV) inactivated (dead)::::Sabin attenuated (live) oral=sabin provides protection through the blood stream and through the mucosa at portals of entry and exit
What do the polio vaccines have in common? both eliminate polio in the individual
When you have alternatives, why choose one over the other? in the case of polio vaccination Salk vaccine provides individual protection; but Sabin vaccine allows protection for masses b/c portals of entry and exit are targeted, Sabin prevents epidemics
DTaP vaccine is for= Diptheria, Tetanus,and acellular Pertussis
provide 3 examples of how the two available flu vaccines differ Flumist;nasal spray, attenuated vaccine, alternative to injection, only recommended for healthy adults, more expensive::::Fluzone=injection, inactivated, least expensive of the two options
what is a conjugated vaccine? (blank)
two reasons conjugated vaccines are used to protect against infant meningitis= (blank)
Three attributes of skin that make it your best defense against infection keratinized (waterproof), provides barrier when intact, contains normal flora bacteria, is naturally acidic
two approaches to prevent vector transmission that do not include vaccination or chemotherapy insect spray, eliminate sources of standing water
Endotoxins are gram negative,
Modes of transmission air, contact, vector, vehicle
resp droplets air
unprotected sex, kissing contact
ticks, fleas vector
contaminated blood transfusion vehicle
two ways individuals acquire normal flora colonized at birth through the birth canal, then through breast milk, bottles, contact with people and objects
artificial active immunity childhood imm's
artificial passive temporary immunity achieved by iv administration of antibiotics
natural active immunity infection and recovery = long term immunity -example is chicken pox
natural passive immunity mother to baby thought placenta; short lived
B lymphocytes antigenic stimulation causes cells to differentiate into plasma cells which produce antibodies that recognize foreign antigens
cytotoxic T cells antigenic stimulation causes cells to release destructive enzymes to lyse host cells that are infected by viruses or intracellular bacteria
helper T cells upon stimulation by APC's cells differentiate into effector cells that coordinate the immune response by stimulating other immune cells with chemical messengers called cytokines
examples of diseases that can persist as bacterial latency are TB & syphilis
chicken pox & cold sores are examples viral latency-when the virus reemerges it is in the form of shingles
WBC's Defense System basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils
basophils triggers inflammation response
basophils are filled with granules containing histamines
basophils move into tissue by diapedesis and b/c mast cells
Eosinophils are associated with inflammation and allergies
eosinophils attack and destroy eukaryotic pathogens
Eosinophils are present in the bone marrow and spleen
eosinophils have a ----nucleus bi lobed
Neutrophils circulate in the bloodstream and tissues
Neutrophils nucleus is horseshoe shaped or polymorphic
In the inflammatory process Neutrophils are the first responders
Neutrophils phagocytize bacteria
Leukocytes in the WBC defense system are Granulocytic
In the WBC defense system MTB's are a'granulocytic
Exotoxins are secreted from living cells and disrupt intracellular function
Exotoxins may originate in gram - or gram + cells
Exotoxins are toxic in minute amounts; they are deadly
Exotoxins target specific cell types=blood, liver and nerves
Diseases caused by exotoxins are diphtheria, botulism, tetanus
Exo Ex(o)=outside
Exogenous infections originate from a source outside the body. May gain access through any of the normal portals of entry or may be an insect bite, scrape or cut in the skin
Endo (en)=inside
endogenous infections originate within an organism or its part. endogenous infections can occur when NF is introduced to a previously sterile site. EX is when E. coli enters the bladder and results in a UTI
Endotoxins are actually a LPS chemical found in the outer membrane of a gram negative cell wall
Endotoxins are released by dead cells-may be toxic in large amounts
Endotoxins are only produced by gram negative bacteria
Endotoxins produce_______ effect. a systemic effect=inflammation, fever
Endotoxins in blood can lead to fatal exotoxic shock OR salmonella, shigella, E. coli, N. meningitidis
Monocytes are agranulocytic; they are attracted to the site of inflammation and differentiate into macrophages to clean up
T-cells originate in the bone marrow and migrate to the thymus to await their calling
Exotoxins can be converted into a toxoid for vaccine purposes
modes of transmission vector, vehicle, contact, air
Air respiratory droplets
contact unprotected sex, kissing
vehicle contaminated blood
vector ticks, fleas
MHC major histocompatablilty complex
It's role is to -- distinguish self from non self
MHC-1 self, all nucleated cells
MHC-2 non self, macrophages, dendritic cells
analogy for MHC wearing team uniforms
what is a conjugated vaccine a vaccine consisting of more than one antigen. For example, the MMR vaccine is a conjugated vaccine consisting of antigens specific for measles, mumps, and rubella.
Created by: nana