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Micro TCN Excelsior

Microbiology The College Network Excelsior

QuestionAnswer
Microbiology is the study of organisms too small to be clearly seen by the unaided eye (i.e., microorganisms)
Microorganisms studied are viruses, bacteria, archaea, protozoa, algae, and fungi
Biotechnology uses microbes to solve biological probs, produce lrg. quanities of useful items, & degrade toxic materials
gene therapy replace defective gene(s) with a "normal" one
scientific method- refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge
Hypothesis An educated guess
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek- 1st to make a microscope and observe animalcules. 1670's. He was more interested ion microscopes.
Animalcules tiny rapidly swimming (tiny animals)
Edward Jenner 1790's performed 1st vaccination small Pox Vaccine
Ignaz Semmels or Sir Jospeh Lister 1850-Ignaz promoted hand washing. 15 yrs later- Joe started using antiseptics and disenfecants in surgery & on wounds.
Louis Pasteur "Father of Microbiology" produced vaccines for anthrax & rabies & 1850's-1880's discovered micobes cause fermintation & that spontaneous generation was false
Spontaneous generation Idea that microbes develop without any cellular parentage
Robert Koch 1870's Dev Koch postulates
Koch postulates The need to satisfy 4 requir in order to establish that an organism is the cause of disease
Agar gelatin-like solidifying agent used in laboratory culture media
pure culture is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions
Germ theroy of disease Belief that microbes will grow in humans & are the cause of diseases that spread from person to person, town to town
Alex Fleming early 20th century, Discovered agents that destroyed bacteria
Lysozyme enzyme degrades bacterial cell walls
PCN 1st true antibiotic used to kill bacteria, gained popularity during WW 2
Bacteria differentiate bacterial types by a single gene variation Edit Nomenclature naming & classifying Edit taxonomy how many levels? naming & classifying of microbes 7 levels
levels of taxonomy kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, & species
Binomial System 2 names organism genus & species
Strain or Biovars (biological variants) Organisms that have small differences but are still in the same genus & species
Serovars similar organisms that differ immunologically
Strains Any type of variation
Domain bacterial Kingdom divided into 2 domains Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes Pro-before Kary-nucleous,organisms have no nucleous-(Bacteria & Archae)
Eukaryotes presence of true nucleus,everything else other than bacteria
Cyanobacteria colored bacteria use sunlight to produce carbs & fix nitrogen from the air
Dark-field microscopy Light is blocked out, so light reflected of the bacteria is seen
Staining improves viablity, microbes seldom have color
Differential Staining Grams stain uses 2 stains, causes diff types of bacteria to change into diff colors
Electron Microscopy, How many diff types stain viruses with heavy metal & shine electrons on them, 2 types
transmission electron microscopy the electrons pass thru the specimen, heavy metals pile up around the virus & scatter electrons& Leaves dark areas that reflect the outline, resolve down to 0point002
scanning electron microscopy scattered electrons are detected & the objects surface is reconstructed by a computer& resolve to 0point02 microns
Medium nutritious extract or mixture that will support the growth of microbes
polar Positive charge at one end & negative charge at the other end
nonpolar no charge
Acids supply an excess of H+ ions
Bases supply an excess of OH- ions
pH high >8 basic
low <6 acidic
neutral point is 7
Macromolecules large molecules
Proteins a macromolecule functions-structural & transport
enzymes are a majority of proteins,breakdown of food into smaller useful
Polysaccharides A macromolecule, assembled by enzymes, Serve as structural function& provide strength
Nucleic Acid A Macromolecule, a sugar-phosphate repeating structure
Codons nucleic acis letter (3)
gene A string of codons
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid A nucleic acid, will always have equal numbers of A & T and equal numbers of C & G
RNA ribonucleic acid
chromosome 1000s of genes that make up a single piece of double stranded DNA
adenine always opposed to thymidine
cytosine opposed to guanine
mRNA messengar RNA single stranded, has a sugar ribose, and has uridine, actual template for protein synthesis aka translation, the A,U,C,G's dont have to be equal
translation protein synthesis
Lipids macromolecule small & span the membrane of every cell,they provide a non polar boundry- keep contents in & keep unwanted material out
Sterols a type of lipid useful as targets for antibiotic therapy of fungi because fungal & animal lipids vary
Cholesterol contained by animl cells
Ergosterols contained by fungi cells
How many bases of RNA are required to code for one amino acid 3
Major component used in baterial classification & identification apperance
coccus spherical shape
bacillus rod shaped
spirochete helical cell
comma shaped vibrio
mono single
diplo two linked cells
tetra four linked cells
strepto means chain of cells
staphylo means a cluster of cells organized like a cluster of grapes
organelles membrane bound sacks that are smaller than a cell. Bacteria has none.
Bacteria replication & transcription occur in cytoplasm
cytoplasmic membrane aka cell or plasma membrane a structure that defines inside & outside
cell wall Bacterias have these layers that confers rigidity & shape to the bacteria.
active transport pumping mechanism that runs the cells energy resources.
plasmids small pieces of DNA that often carry genes for highly specialized functions, for example, they may code for resistance to some commonly used antibiotics.
ribosomes are the enzymes that perform translation, do vary between bacteria & eukaryotes.
granules aka inclusions contained by many bacteria in the cytoplasm. usually provide an energy source.
peptidoglycan PG a polysaccharide called glycan that is cross-linked to other polysaccharide molecules by short peptide bridges.
lysis bacteria with damaged cell walls literally explode
capsule aka glycocalyx a covering, usually a polysaccharide.
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) a presence or type of capsule
cell envelope all of the covering layers of a bacterium.
spores aka endospores grow inside of the cell (spores)
proteinaceous flagella organelle of motility
filament major part of a flagellum. contains flagellin.
flagellin long helical structures made of polymerized protein
filament major part of flagellum. shaped like corkscrew & are normally longer than the entire cell.
Flagellin long, helical structures made of polymerized protein.
hook can bend, like universal joint
basal body hook is attached to this . 2 to 4 rings mounted on a rod that secure the flagellum to the cell envelope.
chemotaxis when bacteria is moving toward or away from something
random-biased walk bacteria tries different random directions & only go a significant distance when they like what's happening.
pili (sex pilus) aka fimbriae hairlike appendages on the external surface of bacteria independant of flagella.
fimbriae how many? ans more specifically means seen in 100s per cell. attachment factors or holdfasts
colony microbes that grow into visible clump of cells
Gram stain differentiate between positive & negative
gram positive bacteria w/ 2 layered cell envelopes
gram negative bacteria with 3 layered cell envelopes, which is unique
Lps is important to bacterial pathogens in escaping the hosts immune system
lipid a aka endotoxin is a potent inducer of inflammatory reactions.
strepto in chains like a necklace
staphylo clustered like grapes
tetra linking in fours
diplo linking in cells of two
pleomorphic can be more than shape
2 biologically active items that destroy a cell wall lysozyme & PCN
Nuclei the defining chara. of a eukaryote
mitochondria energy production
endoplasmic reticulum for the translation of proteins
golgi apparatus for packaging material to be secreted
vacuoles for food or storage
Bulk transport eukaryotes have this an additional type of transport.
endocytosis engulf a large molecule
exocytosis secrete whole antibody molecules.
vesicle a small membrane sac
ligand general term for any type of molecule that a receptor binds to.
phagocytosis one form of endocytosis. cell eating, useful for ridding the cell of debris
pseudopodia false foot
lysosomes digestive organelles filled with toxic chemicals & degradative enzymes.
phagocytes one group of WBCs that travel to all parts of the body to clean up any problems.
Fungi make up a large kingdom Eukaryotes and break down organic material into forms that are reuseable by other living things.
heterotrophic fungi are this. cuz they use organic material made by other cells
symbiotic some fungi are..this cuz they obtain nutrients from living cells without harming them
saprobes most fungi are this cuz they obtain nutrients from dead organic material
fungi are generally classified as molds, yeasts, or mushrooms
yeasts grow as single roundish cells
molds grow in hyphae, long chains
hyphae "web". molds grow like this- in long chains of connected cells
hypae are divided into 2 classes septate & aseptate
septate cross walls separarting individual cells
Mycelia fuzzy masses of hypae (mold)
Ergosterol major lipid of fungi. humans have cholesterol
Chitlin Polysaccharide that most fungi cells are made of.
3 groups of the kingdom of Protista alage, protozoa, & slime molds
Algae unicellular, can grow in large groups
Protozoa unicellular, lack photosynthetic ability & use their organellas for moving & food gathering
Slime molds grow on dead material & produce spores, some have flagella or pseudopodia (false feet)
Protozoan moves via flagella, cillia, pseudopodia
Algaes role in marine life use sun's energy to make organic material and oxygen. Are primary food source for ocean cretures
Algal cells are made of cellulose
Algae obtains and uses sunlight via through chlorophyll
protozoans classified & identified via of the way they move and their locomation apparatus
cellular vs acellular group of individual cells / plasmodium, a giant cell containing many nuclei
vector carriers of pathogens, ie lice, mites, ticks, mosquitos
a pathogen to be transmitted via mosquito pathogen must migrate to the salivary gland and replicate there.
tick-dermacentor andersoni transmits rickettsia which causes Rocky mountain fever
Ixodes scapularis tick transmits Borrelia burgdorferi which causes Lyme disease
Obligate intracellular parasites incapable of replicating outside of a host-viruses
bacterial viruses bacteriophages or just phages
viruses THE simplest ORGANISIMS ON EARTH, defined as living cuz they replicate
bacteriophage penetrate hosts walls via neddle like tube-they use this tube to propel and inject their nucleic acid
Capsomere a viral protein that forms the coat around the viral nucleic acid
Capsid protein shell made of capsomeres
nucleocapsid capsid covering plus the nucleic acid
envelope an additional covering made of membrane fromthe host cell & viral protein
virion an intact viral particle with its appropriate coating layers
icosahedron 20 identical sides
envelope parts come from membrane from host & attachment proteins are from the virus
7 steps in human virus attachment, penetration, uncoating, nucleic acid replication, protein synthesis, self-assembly, release
prions smallest replicating agents, have no DNA or RNA
kuru aka Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease disease in which shaking occurs, tribes ate infected brain
scrapie Kuru in sheep, cause it makes then scrap all their hide off
encephalopathy prions folded protein destroys the hosts brain
Acidophiles Bacteria that grow in acidic enviroments.
aerobes Bacteria that grows in oxygen
alkalophiles Bacteria that grows in alkaline enviroments
anaerobes Bacteria that grows without the presence oxygen
antagonism a mutual harmful relationship between organisms
autotrophs Bacteria and other organisms that can use carbon dioxide from the air as a source of carbon.
auxotrophs bacteria with mutations that disallow them from making a given vitamin, they acquire them from hosts
Carbon Most abudant elemant in cells.
hetertrophs require their carbon source in an organic form (sugar/aminao acid)
Fastidious organisms organisms that require vitamins or similar nutrients
photoautotrophs bacteria that is photosynthetic & can use energy in light
Halophiles bacteria that can grow in high salt conditions
methanogens bacteria that gets their energy from carbon dioxide & hydrogen to produce methane gas
chemoautotrophs use minerals & gases from the sir, & derive energy from chemicals found in rocks.
liquid media broth
to solidify miquid media add agar
synthetic or defined media bacterial culture that consists of media of known chemicals (ie sugar, vitamins)
brain-heart infusion broth nonsynthetic or compulsive media
if we know what nutrients are needed & can add them to the heart-brain infusion enriched medium
bood agar medium generally used for the isolation of human pathogens from body sites,ex throat. (We add blood to the brain-heart medium if we don't know what nutrients are needed.
selective media media allows certain kinds of bacteria to grow while not letting the other bacteria(s) grow.
differental media allows different types of organisms, but colonies of one type of organism are differentiated by the color they produce as they metabolize the sugar.
bacteria to be identified must be isoloated
brownian motion molecules are always bouncing around off one another in this process
hydrostatic/osmotic pressure pressure d/t h20 trying to reduce the chemical gradient
aerobes bacteria grows in the presence of o2
Obligated aerobes absolutely require o2 to grow in (baceris)
anaerobes absenence of air-bacteria grows
facultative anaerobes with or w/o o2 bacteria grows in
microaerophiles require reduced o2 bacteria grows in
acidophilles acidic enviroment bacteria grow
alkalophiles bacteria that can grow in alkaline enviroments (high pH)
bacteria that can't grow w/o high concentration of salt obligate halophiles
pshychrophiles cold
mesophiles warm (human pathogens)
thermophile hot
extreme thermophile boiling
can't grow but don't die @ high temp for short period of time thermoduric
Synergism Symbiotic relationship. Total growth of 2 or more arganisms is better than if they had just grew alone by themselves.
Mutualistic symbiotic relationship. when both organisms need each other to live.
Commensalism symbiotic relatioonship. when organism A helps Organ. B. But Organ. A neither affected good or bad.
Parasitism Symbiotic realtionship where one is getting hurt and the other is thriving.
Antagonism Symbiotic relationship in which both organisms are being hurt.
SIX most abudants elements in microbes carbon, o2, nitrogen,hydrogen, phosphorus, & sulfar
SIX most abudant types of molecules in a living bacterium h20,proteins,RNA,carbohydrates,lipids,DNA
Diffusion Brownian motion, nutrient molecules are constantly moving, so they make contact w/bactrium.
Prevents a bacterial cell from rupturing srength of the peptidoglycan
cell division & binary fisson bacterial cells grow by dividing & forming 2 progeny cells that are equal to the original cell
generation each division or doubling is called this
exponential growth when bacteria double every constant period of time
lag phase not moving. when placed from petri disk to broth. cells are adapting to the rich supply of nutrients in preparation of growth.30 to 60 minutes
log phase second phase.cells start to multiply by doubling every approx 30 min. may be a few hours long but the time depends directly on nutrient availability
stationary phase cells maintain cell number but aren't able to produce new cells or they are dying and replacing at the same rate.can be minutes to days this is due to nutrient depletion
decline phase or death phase last phase. cuz the cells aren't receiving sufficient energy or nutrients to maintain viablity they die.
autolytic they produce enzymes that cause their own lysis or breakdown
dilutions this is how you can determine the number of viable cells in a culture.
akiquots small samples of a culture
exponential growth means that in every generation (or growth cycle) twice as many cells are formed.
CFU colony forming unit. each viable cell that can grow into a colony on a petri dish
Turbidimetric assay determines how many bacterial cells,living or dead, are present by use of a spectrophotometer. This number is different than CFU's because CFU only count viable cells.
anabolism the use of energy & building blocks to make new cellular materials.
catabolism hte breakdown of complex materials that use cells for making more cells
metabolism all the chemical processes occurring in a cell
enzymes protein catalysts that cells use to convert some molecules into others.
activation energy refers to the amount of heat necessary to cause a chemical reaction.Enzymes can dramatically reduce the activation energy.
3 Major pathways of catabolism in organisms Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, & electron transport.
Glycolysis how many ATPs 2 ATPS are produced by....
TCA Cycle/electron transport how many ATPs 30 ATPS are produced by...........
Final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration O2
2 possible final electron acceptors in anaerobic reaction nitrate & sulfate
6 Commercially valuable products vis fermintation cheese, yogurt, vinegar, acetone, butyl alcohol, beer & wine
DNA RNA & amino acids types of macromolecules that require building blocks, or precursor molecules.
DNA infomational molecule. tells cells what to do/ how to operate
RNA translated into proteins, the real cell workers
Transcription The process by which RNA polymerase uses a DNA template to produce mRNA
RNA polymerase the enzyme responsible for transcription. aka used to produce the RNA copy of each gene
Operon 2 or more genes in a bacterial chromosome that are transcribed into one mRNA. Eukaryotic cells do not have operons
Translation The process of rRNAs translating the mRNA codons into proteins by polymerizing the correet amino acids in th ecorrect order.
mRNA A template for the coded genetic information in DNA to be translated into protein
ribosomes enzymes that carry out the process of translation
codon a nucleotide triplet that codes for a specific amino acid
Couple transcription & translation the simultaneous synthesis of RNA & protein that occur in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes
A triplet of bases encodes.. Each triplet codon in mRNA codes for 1 amino acid
Griffith demonstrated a gene transfer by showing that capsular production could be restored to a capsular mutant from dead, wild-type bacteria
Avery showed that genes are made of DNA by showing that the bacterial substance that caused transformation was DNase sensitive.
Hershey & chase confirmed that DNA is the genetic material
gene the DNA coding material for a single protein
chromosome a large circular molecule of several million base pairs of DNA that contains cellular genes
genome the collection of all the genes in a cell
complementary DNA DNA that will base pair w/another DNA molecule cuz it has A in place of every T, C in place of every g of the other molecule
gene amounts in bacterium & human cells bacterium 5,000 and human=50,000
Prokaryotic cells have haplois genomes
Eukaryotic cells have diploid genomes
A disease that is most common in the Ohio Missi. River drainage area, is spread from bird poop, & is DX as a yeast in bronchoalveolar lavage washings is HISTOPLASMOSIS
Feeding form of Giardia Lamblia TROPHOZITE
Malarial Merozoites infect RBCs
Parasite, damages the liver & have a life cycle stage in a snail is FLUKE
Agents that causes swimming pool conjunctivitis & keratoconjunctivitis is ADENOVIRUS
Alcohol in alcholic drinks is produced by YEAST
this organism makes a natural pesticide BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS
microbe shells are used to decontaminate water supplies DIATOMS
Air forced through sewage to HELP AEROBIC BACTERIA GROWTH
Actinomycetes as Nocardia & Streptomyces are commonly found here SOIL
Produces the greatest amount of energy ELECTRON TRANSPORT
double stranded DNA virus has 40% G+C, then it has ___% A 30
All viruses are intracellular,contain nucleocapsid,either RNa or DNA but not both
specific chara. of heterotrophs is that they OBTAIN CARBON FROM ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Most important advantage of solid media over broth is SPECIFIC COLONIES TO BE ISOLATED
sterilization indicates AN ABSENCE OF LIFE
detergents primarily act on microbes by DISOLVING THE LIPID MEMBRANES
the beta lactam ring of PCNs is destroyed by B LACTAMASE
Antibiotic for TB ISONIAZID
Antiherpes Rx ACYCLOVIR
Antiviral that acts to stop uncoating is AMANTADINE
Spread via aerosols PNEUMONIC PLAGUE
Opsonizatioin is enhanced by ANTIBODIES
Legionnaire's disease source WATER COOLING TOWERS
Bacteria that have lost the ability to grow on a specific sugar AUXOTROPHS
PCN Antibio. theraphy will be most effective against STAPH & STREP
Mycobacteria are usually hard for the host to overcome cuz HAVE A WAXY CELL WALL
principal cell killed by HIV T HELPER OR CD4
Varicella zoster virus is cause of chicken pox
Hep B DESTROYS LIVER CELLS
Kaposi's sarcoma is associated with infection by the HIV
virus that contains reverse transcriptase HIV
a protein that causes a given gene or operon to start expressing is called INDUCER
Zoonotic transmission is observed for SALMONELLOSIS
Infected woman is more likely that an infected man to miss recognizing this symptom CHANCRE
a bacterial process of recombination that requires cell to cell contact CONJUGATION
First proved the germ thery of disease KOCH
Bacterial motility is produced by FLAGELLA
A bacterium that only grows in the absence of oxygen OBLIGATE ANAEROBE
Rapid growth of bacteria occurs in this phase LOG PHASE
How do Cyanobacteria obtain their energy PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Spontaneous changes in genes occurs because of MUTAGENESIS
Component of the bacterial cell wall gives it its rigidity PEPTIOGLYCAN
The most important cellular organelle in the destruction of a pathogen is the LYSOSOME
Parts of bacterial flagella basal body, flagellin, hook
Janssen, Hans & Zaccharias invented first compound microscope
Hooke (1665) Looked at cork via microscope Coined the word cell. Set the foundation for cell theory.
cell theory states all living things are composd of cells
Van leeuwenhoek 1670's & 80's first to observe & describe living microbes-"animalcules". His homemade microscope magnified a specimen up to 200-300x.
Linnaeus 1735 developed a classification system-binomial nomenclature
binominal nomenclature classification system (genus name+species name)
spontaneous generation states living matter can appear out of no where
Francesco REDI 1660s first to present evidence spontaneous generation false. cloth covered jars. Poor guy was ignored.
John NEEDHAM 1740s showed proof spontaneous generation was true. he boiled nutrient solutions, yet when cooled stuff grew.
Lazzaro SPALLANZANI showed that NEEDHAMS experiments where BS. that u seal the boiled flasks and nothing can grow. that there where stuff in the air.
Jenner 1789 first vaccine (cow pox)
Semmelweis 1840s first to suggest doctors wash their nasty hands
Louis Pasteur developed the swan neck flask. disproved sponatenous generation. showed microorganisms are everywhere. put aseptic technique in the running stages.
Jospeh LISTER 1860s disinfectants to clean surgical dressings and instruments.
Koch One organism-one disease. First to establish pure-culture technique and to use agar as a growth medium. (koch postulates)
Ehrlich Syphillis
Fleming PCN
Domagk Sulfa
5 Kingdoms Monera,Protista,Fungi,& Animalia
Microorganisms- all this kingdom Monera (bacteria & cyanophytes)
one meter is ____ feet 3.28ft is ____meter
resolution refers to the ability to tell the diff of adjacent objects or structures as seperate & discrete entities
resolving power of a microscope indicates the size of the smallest objects that can be clearly observed.
Created by: MiglettMomma24