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BIO345- Lecture 3

What does Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium demonstrate? The persistence of allele frequencies over time
What did Dobzhansky do? Linked mechanism (ns) w
What happened in 1952? The discovery of the significance and structure of DNA
When did the ability to sequence DNA come about? 1960s
Allele a different form of a gene
Genotype the specific allele combinations in an individual
Phenotype The observed traits of an individual affected by both genotype and environment
Does natural selection operate on genotype or phenotype? Phenotype
What are 3 ways to describe genotypes? Homozygous, heterozygous, hemizygous
Homozygous (aka ?) aka “true breeding”- Both alleles are the same
Heterozygous A genotype that has 2 different alleles
Hemizygous A haploid genotype- there is only 1 allele present
What are 4 ways to describe phenotype? dominant, recessive, incomplete dominance, codominance
Dominant A given allele is expressed
Recessive A given allele is masked
Incomplete dominance phenotype is intermediate (~pink)
Codominance Both alleles are expressed (intermediate- ~red & white)
How do we get blood type? A transferase creates specific glycoproteins that act as antigens and are placed on the cell's surface; These antigens give you your blood types (A antigens = type A, no antigens = type O)
What are the 4 blood types? A (A glycoprotein), B (B glycoprotein), AB (both A & B glycoproteins), O (no recognizable glycoprotein)
How many alleles are there for blood type? 3 (A, B, & O)
At what gene locus is blood type? Transferase
How many genotypes are there for blood type? 6 (A, AO, B, BO, AB, OO)
How many phenotypes are there for blood type? 4 (A, AB, B, O)
How are genotypes translated into phenotypes? Replication, transcription, & translation
Replication The process by which DNA is copied
Transcription The process by which information in DNA is transferred into messenger RNA (mRNA); mRNA is created in the nucleus & must be transported to the cytoplasm where ribosomes await
Translation The process by which information in mRNA is utilized to create proteins on ribosomes
Why are there different genotypes? Mutation
Mutation An inherited change in the DNA
Does order of the nucleotides matter and why? Yes- specific nucleotide sequences make up specific amino acids which help to create a protein
What are the two major types of mutations? Micromutations and macromutations
What are the 4 types of micromutations? Synonymous, missense, nonsense, frameshift
Synonymous mutation A change in a nucleotide base doesn't cause a change in an amino acid [sequence]
Missense mutation A change in a nucleotide base causes a change in amino acid [sequence]
Frameshift mutation A change in amino acid sequence occurs following the insertion of one nucleotide base
Nonsense mutation When a nucleotide mutation causes a stop codon to be translated and there is premature termination of protein synthesis
Which of the four micromutations have the least impact on phenotype? Synonymous (no change in amino acid sequence)
Which of the four micromutation shave the greatest impact on phenotype? Frameshift & nonsense
What are the four types of macromutations? Deletions, duplications, Inversions, & Reciprocal Translocations
Reciprocal translocation AB\CDEFG + HIJKL\MNOP → ABMNOP + HIJKLCDEFG
What are 3 types of posttranslational processing? Proteolysis, glycosylation, & phosphorylation
Proteolysis In creating a protein the mRNA is spliced
Glycolysation In creating a protein the mRNA has sugar added to it
Phosphorylation In creating a protein the mRNA has phosphate added to it
What happens after posttranslational processing? Proteins are assembled into functional molecules (like hemoglobin, a tetramer)
Created by: 817229501