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WVC cardiac meds &

WVC cardiac meds & rhythm values

QuestionAnswer
Calcium Channel Blockers: diltiazem, amlodipine, nacardipine, nifedipine
Calcium Channel blockers action: increase myocardial oxygen supply, therefore lowering the heart rate. Calcium channel blockers cause the coronary arteries to dilate (NO CALCIUM= DILATION) (ex.diltiazem, amlodipine)
ACE Inhibitors: enalapril, enalaprilat, captopril, fosinopril, moexopril, ramipril, trandolapril
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors action: block conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors also prevents degradation of bradykinin & other vasodilatory prostaglandins. ACE inhibitors also ↑ plasma renin levels. Net result =systemic vasodilation (enalapril)
Nitrates: Nitroglycerin, amyl nitrite, isosorbide dinitrate
Nitrates action: ^ coronary blood flow by dilating cor.arteries & improving flow to ischemic regions, Produces vasodilation Decreases left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (preload); Reduces myocardial oxygen consumption
Beta Blockers atenolol, carvedilol, metoprolol tartrate, propranolol
Beta blockers action: Blocks stimulation of beta1(myocardial)-adrenergic receptors. Does not usually affect beta2(pulmonary, vascular, uterine)-receptor sites ( atenolol)
Cardiac glycosides: digoxin
Cardiac glycosides Action Increases the force of myocardial contraction; Prolongs refractory period of the AV node; Decreases conduction through the SA and AV nodes
Centrally acting antiadrenergics: guanfacine, methyldopa
Centrally acting antiadrenergics action Stimulates CNS alpha2-adrenergic receptors, producing a decrease in sympathetic outflow to heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. Result is decreased blood pressure and peripheral resistance, decrease in heart rate, & no change in cardiac output. (methyldopa)
Loup diuretics: furosemide, bumetanide, torsemide
Loup diuretics Action Inhibits the reabsorption of Na & Cl from the loop of Henle and distal renal tubule; Increases renal excretion of H2O, Na, Cl, Mg, K & Ca; Effectiveness persists in impaired renal function ( furosemide/ lasix)
Thizide & thiazide like diuretics: Hydrochlorothiazide, chlorothiazide, methyclothiazide
Thizide & thiazide like diuretics Action Increases excretion of Na & H2O by inhibiting Na reabsorption in the distal tubule; Promotes excretion of Cl, K, H, Mg, Ph, Ca, HCO3. ( Hydrochlorothiazide)
Vasodilators: diazoxide, epoprostenol, fenoldopam, hydrALAZINE, hydralazine/isosorbide dinitrate, minoxidil (systemic), nitroprusside, papaverine
Vasodilator action Directly relaxes vascular smooth muscle in peripheral arterioles. Produces ↓ in BP, reflex tachycardia and increased cardiac output; Inhibits insulin release from the pancreas and decreases peripheral utilization of glucose
lipid-lowering agents/ hmg coa reductase inhibitors/ statin: atorvastatin, cerivastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin
lipid-lowering agents/ hmg coa reductase inhibitors/ statin action: Inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, an enzyme which is responsible for catalyzing an early step in the synthesis of cholesterol (lovastatin)
PR interval 0.12-0.20 sec (up to 5 small blocks) (represents the time required for atrial depolarization)
P wave deflection representing atrial depolarization
PR segment segment from end of p wave to beginning of QRS complex. Electrical impulse is traveling through AV node.
QRS complex 0.04- 0.10 (up to 3 small blocks) ventricle depolarization. From beginning of qrs to the J point.
ST segment from j point to beginning of t-wave. Represents early ventricular repolarization.
T wave represents ventricular repolarization
U wave represents late repolarization.
QT interval represents the total time required for depolarization and repolarization.
calcium channel blockers Indications Hypertension; Angina ; SVT & rapid ventricular rates in a-flutter or a-fibrillation (ex.diltiazem, amlodipine)
thiazide diuretics Indications Management of mild to moderate hypertension; Treatment of edema associated with Congestive heart failure; Renal dysfunction; Cirrhosis; Glucocorticoid therapy; Estrogen therapy (ex. Hydrochlorothiazide)
Nitrates Indications Indications management of angina pectoris; treatment of CHF; treatment of acute MI; Treatment of CHF associated with acute MI (ex. Nitroglycerin)
hmg coa reductase inhibitors (statin) Indications Primary prevention of CAD in asymptomatic pts. with increased total & (LDL) cholesterol and decreased (HDL) cholesterol; Slows the progression of coronary atherosclerosis (ex. lovastatin)
ace inhibitors Indications management of hypertension; Management of symptomatic heart failure; Slowed progression of asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction to overt heart failure (ex. enalapril)
loop diuretics Indications Edema due to heart failure; Hypertension; hepatic impairment or renal disease (ex.furosemide/Lasix)
beta blockers Indications Management of hypertension; Management of angina pectoris; Prevention of MI (ex. atenolol)
centrally acting antiadrenergics Indications Management of moderate to severe hypertension (with other agents) (ex. methyldopa)
Coronary arteries Right main; Left main; Left anterior descending (LAD); circumflex
Total lipids 400-1000
LDL 60-80 ----geri 92-221
HDL >40 increased with geri patients
Triglycerides Male 40-160
Triglycerides Female 35-135
Triglycerides Geri 55-260
Cholesterol 122-200----geri 144-280
HDL/ LDL ratio 3:1
angiotensin ii receptor antagonists Indications Hypertension (alone or with other agents) (EX. olmesartan)
angiotensin ii receptor antagonists Action Blocks vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II at various receptor sites including vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal glands (EX. olmesartan)
angiotensin ii receptor antagonists olmesartan, candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, losartan, telmisartan, valsartan
Potassium Sparing Diuretics: spironolactone, triamterene
potassium sparing diuretics Indications Management of primary hyperaldosteronism; Management of edema associated with CHF, cirrhosis and nephrotic syndrome; Management of essential hypertension; Treatment of hypokalemia (ex. spironolactone,)
Potassium Sparing Diuretics Action Causes loss of sodium bicarbonate and calcium while saving potassium and hydrogen ions by antagonizing aldosterone (spironolactone,)
Created by: wvc